Article

Reprogramming of tRNA modifications controls the oxidative stress response by codon-biased translation of proteins

Department of Biological Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.
Nature Communications (Impact Factor: 10.74). 07/2012; 3:937. DOI: 10.1038/ncomms1938
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Selective translation of survival proteins is an important facet of the cellular stress response. We recently demonstrated that this translational control involves a stress-specific reprogramming of modified ribonucleosides in tRNA. Here we report the discovery of a step-wise translational control mechanism responsible for survival following oxidative stress. In yeast exposed to hydrogen peroxide, there is a Trm4 methyltransferase-dependent increase in the proportion of tRNA(Leu(CAA)) containing m(5)C at the wobble position, which causes selective translation of mRNA from genes enriched in the TTG codon. Of these genes, oxidative stress increases protein expression from the TTG-enriched ribosomal protein gene RPL22A, but not its unenriched paralogue. Loss of either TRM4 or RPL22A confers hypersensitivity to oxidative stress. Proteomic analysis reveals that oxidative stress causes a significant translational bias towards proteins coded by TTG-enriched genes. These results point to stress-induced reprogramming of tRNA modifications and consequential reprogramming of ribosomes in translational control of cell survival.

1 Follower
 · 
204 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Bacterial strains carrying nonsense suppressor tRNA genes played a crucial role in early work on bacterial and bacterial viral genetics. In eukaryotes as well, suppressor tRNAs have played important roles in the genetic analysis of yeast and worms. Surprisingly, little is known about genetic suppression in archaea, and there has been no characterization of suppressor tRNAs or identification of nonsense mutations in any of the archaeal genes. Here, we show, using the β-gal gene as a reporter, that amber, ochre, and opal suppressors derived from the serine and tyrosine tRNAs of the archaeon Haloferax volcanii are active in suppression of their corresponding stop codons. Using a promoter for tRNA expression regulated by tryptophan, we also show inducible and regulatable suppression of all three stop codons in H. volcanii. Additionally, transformation of a ΔpyrE2 H. volcanii strain with plasmids carrying the genes for a pyrE2 amber mutant and the serine amber suppressor tRNA yielded transformants that grow on agar plates lacking uracil. Thus, an auxotrophic amber mutation in the pyrE2 gene can be complemented by expression of the amber suppressor tRNA. These results pave the way for generating archaeal strains carrying inducible suppressor tRNA genes on the chromosome and their use in archaeal and archaeviral genetics. We also provide possible explanations for why suppressor tRNAs have not been identified in archaea.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 04/2015; 112(19). DOI:10.1073/pnas.1501558112 · 9.81 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Methylation of tRNA is an important post-transcriptional modification and aberrations in tRNA modification has been implicated in cancer. The DNMT2 protein methylates C38 of tRNA-Asp and it has a role in cellular physiology and stress response and its expression levels are altered in cancer tissues. Here we studied whether DNMT2 somatic mutations found in cancer tissues affect the activity of the enzyme. We have generated 13 DNMT2 variants and purified the corresponding proteins. All proteins were properly folded as determined by circular dichroism spectroscopy. We tested their RNA methylation activity using in vitro generated tRNA-Asp. One of the mutations (E63K) caused a twofold increase in activity, while two of them led to a stronger (over fourfold decrease) in activity (G155S and L257V). Two additional mutant proteins were almost inactive (R371H and G155V). The strong effect of some of the somatic cancer mutations on DNMT2 activity suggests that these mutations have a functional role in tumorigenesis. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Biochimie 03/2015; 112. DOI:10.1016/j.biochi.2015.02.022 · 3.12 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: tRNAs, nexus molecules between mRNAs and proteins, have a central role in translation. Recent discoveries have revealed unprecedented complexity of tRNA biosynthesis, modification patterns, regulation and function. In this Review, we present emerging concepts regarding how tRNA abundance is dynamically regulated and how tRNAs (and their nucleolytic fragments) are centrally involved in stress signalling and adaptive translation, operating across a wide range of timescales. Mutations in tRNAs or in genes affecting tRNA biogenesis are also linked to complex human diseases with surprising heterogeneity in tissue vulnerability, and we highlight cell-specific aspects that modulate the disease penetrance of tRNA-based pathologies.
    Nature Reviews Genetics 12/2014; 16(2):98-112. DOI:10.1038/nrg3861 · 39.79 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
22 Downloads
Available from
May 28, 2014