Clinical application of physical exercise has developed into an evidence-based therapeutic option for cardiovascular diseases, especially coronary artery disease (CAD) and chronic heart failure (CHF). In CAD regular physical exercise training partially corrects endothelial dysfunction and leads to an economization of left ventricular function. Meta-analyses have shown a reduction of angina pectoris symptoms and a decrease of total and cardiovascular mortality by regular aerobic exercise training. Endurance training for CHF reduces cardiac afterload by correcting peripheral endothelial dysfunction und leads to a better left ventricular function. In addition exercise training reduces the adrenergic tone and the stimulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in CHF. Exercise training provides positive effects on the metabolism and function of skeletal muscle (e.g. reduced inflammation and oxidative stress). Supervised regular physical exercise training in CHF is safe and has improved the morbidity in clinical studies. Thus aerobic exercise training is an important component of therapeutic management of stable CAD and CHF with a class 1a recommendation in the current guidelines.
"Physical exercise improves skeletal muscle perfusion (17) and reduces oxidative stress and inflammation (18), resulting in better physical performance; consequently, an exercise program could be beneficial for conditions associated with proinflammatory activation, such as that observed in CHF. However, to the best of our knowledge, no studies in the literature demonstrate the effects of physical training on the plasmatic inflammatory profile and cardiac remodeling or the correlation between these variables in rats with CHF; therefore, the benefits of physical training have not been fully clarified. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of 8 weeks of aerobic exercise training on cardiac functioning and remodeling and on the plasma levels of inflammatory cytokines in chronic heart failure rats.
Wistar rats were subjected to myocardial infarction or sham surgery and assigned to 4 groups: chronic heart failure trained (n = 7), chronic heart failure sedentary (n = 6), sham trained (n = 8) and sham sedentary (n = 8). Four weeks after the surgical procedures, the rats were subjected to aerobic training in the form of treadmill running (50 min/day, 5 times per week, 16 m/min). At the end of 8 weeks, the rats were placed under anesthesia, the hemodynamic variables were recorded and blood samples were collected. Cardiac hypertrophy was evaluated using the left ventricular weight/body weight ratio, and the collagen volume fraction was assessed using histology.
The chronic heart failure trained group showed a reduction in left ventricular end-diastolic pressure, a lower left ventricular weight/body weight ratio and a lower collagen volume fraction compared with the chronic heart failure sedentary group. In addition, exercise training reduced the plasma levels of TNF-α and IL-6 and increased the plasma level of IL-10.
An 8-week aerobic exercise training program improved the inflammatory profile and cardiac function and attenuated cardiac remodeling in chronic heart failure rats.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is unclear which exercise training protocol yields superior heart rate recovery (HRR) improvement in heart failure (HF) patients. Whether baseline HRR normality plays a role in the improvement is unknown. We hypothesized that an exercise training protocol and baseline HRR normality would be factors in altering HRR in HF patients.
In this prospective, randomized, controlled and 3 group parallel study, 41 stable HF patients. Forty-one stable HF patients were randomly assigned to 3-times-weekly training sessions for 12 weeks, consisting of i) 30 minutes of interval training (IT) (n=17, 63.7±8.8 years old) versus ii) 30 minutes of continuous training (CT) (n=13, 59.6±6.8 years old) versus iii) no training (CON) (n=11, 60.6±9.9 years old). Each patient had cardiopulmonary exercise testing before and after the training program. Maximum heart rates attained during the test and heart rates at 1 and 2 min (HRR1 and HRR2) during the recovery phase were recorded. Paired samples t-test or Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used for comparisons before and after training. One-way ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis variance analysis were used for comparisons among groups.
HRR1 was unchanged after training. HRR2 improved in the IT group after training, and post-training HRR2 values were significantly faster in the IT group than in controls. Both HRR1 and HRR2 was significantly faster, irrespective of exercise protocol in patients with abnormal baseline values after training.
HRR1 did not improve after training. HRR2 improved only in the IT group. Both HRRs in patients with abnormal baseline values improved after both exercise protocols. IT might be superior to CT in improving HRR2. Baseline HRR might play a role in its response to exercise.
Anadolu kardiyoloji dergisi: AKD = the Anatolian journal of cardiology 10/2014; 15(9). DOI:10.5152/akd.2014.5710 · 0.93 Impact Factor
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Ville Vänni, Johanna Turtiainen, Tapio Hakala, Juha Salenius, Velipekka Suominen, Niku Oksala, Jussi Hernesniemi,
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