Energy intake and expenditure during sedentary screen time and motion-controlled video gaming
ABSTRACT Television watching and playing of video games (VGs) are associated with higher energy intakes. Motion-controlled video games (MC) may be a healthier alternative to sedentary screen-based activities because of higher energy expenditures, but little is known about the effects of these games on energy intakes.
Energy intake, expenditure, and surplus (intake - expenditure) were compared during sedentary (television and VG) and active (MC) screen-time use.
Young adults (n = 120; 60 women) were randomly assigned to the following 3 groups: television watching, playing traditional VGs, or playing MCs for 1 h while snacks and beverages were provided. Energy intakes, energy expenditures, and appetites were measured.
Intakes across these 3 groups showed a trend toward a significant difference (P = 0.065). The energy expenditure (P < 0.001) was higher, and the energy surplus (P = 0.038) was lower, in MC than in television or VG groups. All conditions produced a mean (±SD) energy surplus as follows: 638 ± 408 kcal in television, 655 ± 533 kcal in VG, and 376 ± 487 kcal in MC groups. The OR for consuming ≥500 kcal in the television compared with the MC group was 3.2 (95% CI: 1.2, 8.4). Secondary analyses, in which the 2 sedentary conditions were collapsed, showed an intake that was 178 kcal (95% CI: 8, 349 kcal) lower in the MC condition than in the sedentary groups (television and VG).
MCs may be a healthier alternative to sedentary screen time because of a lower energy surplus, but the playing of these games still resulted in a positive energy balance. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01523795.
- American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 03/2015; 101(6). DOI:10.3945/ajcn.115.110221 · 6.92 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Active video games may contribute to reducing time spent in sedentary activities, increasing physical activity and preventing excessive weight gain in adolescents. Active video gaming can, however, only be beneficial for weight management when it replaces sedentary activities and not other physical activity, and when it is not associated with a higher energy intake. The current study therefore examines the association between active video gaming and other energy-balance-related behaviours (EBRBs). Adolescents (12-16 years) with access to an active video game and who reported to spend at least one hour per week in active video gaming were invited to participate in the study. They were asked to complete electronic 24-hour recall diaries on five randomly assigned weekdays and two randomly assigned weekend-days in a one-month period, reporting on time spent playing active and non-active video games and on other EBRBs. Findings indicated that adolescents who reported playing active video games on assessed days also reported spending more time playing non-active video games (Median = 23.6, IQR = 56.8 minutes per week) compared to adolescents who did not report playing active video games on assessed days (Median = 10.0, IQR = 51.3 minutes per week, P < 0.001 (Mann Whitney test)). No differences between these groups were found in other EBRBs. Among those who played active video games on assessed days, active video game time was positively yet weakly associated with TV/DVD time and snack consumption. Active video game time was not significantly associated with other activities and sugar-sweetened beverages intake. The results suggest that it is unlikely that time spent by adolescents in playing active video games replaces time spent in other physically active behaviours or sedentary activities. Spending more time playing active video games does seem to be associated with a small, but significant increase in intake of snacks. This suggests that interventions aimed at increasing time spent on active video gaming, may have unexpected side effects, thus warranting caution.International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 12/2015; 12(1):192. DOI:10.1186/s12966-015-0192-6 · 3.68 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Active video games (AVGs) have been shown to acutely increase energy expenditure when compared with seated video games; however, the influence of AVGs on compensatory adjustments in energy intake and expenditure is largely unknown. The aim was to examine the acute effects of AVGs on energy intake and expenditure. With the use of a randomized crossover design, 26 male adolescents (mean ± SD age: 14.5 ± 1.4 y) completed three 1-h experimental conditions: resting control, seated video game play (Xbox 360; Microsoft), and AVG play (Kinect Adventures on Xbox 360) followed by an ad libitum lunch. A validated food menu was used to assess food intake immediately after the conditions and for the remainder of the day, and a dietary record was used for the subsequent 3-d period. Energy expenditure was measured by using portable indirect calorimetry throughout each experimental condition, and an accelerometer was used to assess the subsequent 3-d period. Appetite sensations were assessed by using visual analog scales at different time points during the testing day. The primary outcomes were acute (immediately after the conditions and 24-h) and short-term (3-d) energy intake and expenditure. Energy expenditure was significantly higher (∼145%; P < 0.001) during the AVG condition than during the resting control and seated video game conditions; however, no significant differences in energy expenditure were observed 24 h (∼6%; P > 0.49) and 3 d after the experimental conditions (∼3%; P > 0.82). No significant differences were observed in absolute energy intake immediately after the conditions (∼2%; P > 0.94) or in absolute energy intake 24 h (∼5%; P > 0.63) and 3 d (∼9%; P > 0.53) after the experimental conditions. Finally, appetite sensations were similar between conditions at all time points (P > 0.05). The increase in energy expenditure promoted by a single session of Kinect AVG play is not associated with increased food intake but is compensated for after the intervention, resulting in no measurable change in energy balance after 24 h. These results suggest that the potential of Kinect to reduce the energy gap underlying weight gain is offset within 24 h in male adolescents. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01655901. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 03/2015; 101(6). DOI:10.3945/ajcn.114.105528 · 6.92 Impact Factor