Harnessing Oncolytic Virus-mediated Antitumor Immunity in an Infected Cell Vaccine

Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Immunology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
Molecular Therapy (Impact Factor: 6.23). 07/2012; 20(9):1791-9. DOI: 10.1038/mt.2012.128
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Treatment of permissive tumors with the oncolytic virus (OV) VSV-Δ51 leads to a robust antitumor T-cell response, which contributes to efficacy; however, many tumors are not permissive to in vivo treatment with VSV-Δ51. In an attempt to channel the immune stimulatory properties of VSV-Δ51 and broaden the scope of tumors that can be treated by an OV, we have developed a potent oncolytic vaccine platform, consisting of tumor cells infected with VSV-Δ51. We demonstrate that prophylactic immunization with this infected cell vaccine (ICV) protected mice from subsequent tumor challenge, and expression of granulocyte-monocyte colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) by the virus (VSVgm-ICV) increased efficacy. Immunization with VSVgm-ICV in the VSV-resistant B16-F10 model induced maturation of dendritic and natural killer (NK) cell populations. The challenge tumor is rapidly infiltrated by a large number of interferon γ (IFNγ)-producing T and NK cells. Finally, we demonstrate that this approach is robust enough to control the growth of established tumors. This strategy is broadly applicable because of VSV's extremely broad tropism, allowing nearly all cell types to be infected at high multiplicities of infection in vitro, where the virus replication kinetics outpace the cellular IFN response. It is also personalized to the unique tumor antigen(s) displayed by the cancer cell.

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Available from: Brian Lichty, Oct 09, 2015
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    • "Previous research has demonstrated the importance of the adaptive immune response in determining cures with OV. T-lymphocytes in particular play a central role in the development of the oncolytic virus/VSVΔM51 mediated adaptive antitumor immunity [21, 22]. The lack of cures in our animal model is likely as a result of using an immune compromised mouse model in order to support the growth of human EWS cells. "
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    ABSTRACT: Unlabelled: Metastatic Ewing sarcoma (EWS) is often resistant to current multimodal chemotherapeutic regimens. Oncolytic virus therapy (OV) is a novel therapeutic platform whereby viruses can selectively infect as well as replicate in and kill tumor cells, while sparing normal tissues. The purpose of this study is to investigate the efficacy of the biotherapeutic oncolytic agent, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSVΔM51), to kill EWS cells that are resistant to conventional therapy. Our hypothesis is that systemic delivery of VSVΔM51 can demonstrate tumor-specific killing of resistant EWS cells, as well as a significant decrease of tumor burden in EWS bearing mice. Methods: A biopsy sample was obtained from a patient with metastatic EWS and was used to establish a novel EWS cell line. In vitro assays evaluated the oncolytic effect of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSVΔM51) on this cell line. EWS xenograft mice model bearing either lung or subcutaneous tumors was established to evaluate the antitumor specific oncolytic effect of VSVΔM51 after local and systemic delivery. Results: The established EWS cell line shared similar molecular and genetic traits to the patient's original tumor specimen. VSVΔM51 effectively infected and killed EWS cells in vitro. In vivo, VSVΔM51 selectively infected and killed EWS and led to significant delay in tumor growth. Conclusion: This study has been designed to implement a translational link between the bedside and the bench, where a specific challenging clinical scenario guided this basic science research. This research demonstrated that a sarcoma, which is resistant to current conventional standard therapies, is still susceptible to an alternative therapeutic platform, such as OV. Adding OV to the armamentarium of sarcoma treatment can enhance the future therapeutic approach towards these cancer patients.
    The Scientific World Journal 01/2014; 2014:171439. DOI:10.1155/2014/171439 · 1.73 Impact Factor
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    • "It is also possible to take advantage of this vaccine effect by infecting cancer cells ex vivo and re-injecting the inactivated " oncolysate " to generate prophylactic and even therapeutic anticancer immune responses. The resulting up-regulation of MHCs and co-regulatory factors and presentation of tumor antigens at the surface of OV infected cells as well as the presence of immunestimulating virus is thought to be at the root of this effect (Lemay et al., 2012). Overall, these studies emphasize the important role of antigen expression/presentation in OV-stimulated anti-tumoral responses. "
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    ABSTRACT: Oncolytic viruses (OVs) comprise a versatile and multi-mechanistic therapeutic platform in the growing arsenal of anticancer biologics. These replicating therapeutics find favorable conditions in the tumor niche, characterized among others by increased metabolism, reduced anti-tumor/antiviral immunity, and disorganized vasculature. Through a self-amplification that is dependent on multiple cancer-specific defects, these agents exhibit remarkable tumor selectivity. With several OVs completing or entering Phase III clinical evaluation, their therapeutic potential as well as the challenges ahead are increasingly clear. One key hurdle is tumor heterogeneity, which results in variations in the ability of tumors to support productive infection by OVs and to induce adaptive anti-tumor immunity. To this end, mounting evidence suggests tumor epigenetics may play a key role. This review will focus on the epigenetic landscape of tumors and how it relates to OV infection. Therapeutic strategies aiming to exploit the epigenetic identity of tumors in order to improve OV therapy are also discussed.
    Frontiers in Genetics 09/2013; 4:184. DOI:10.3389/fgene.2013.00184
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    ABSTRACT: The development of genetically engineered models (GEM) of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) has been very successful, with well validated models representing high grade and low grade serous adenocarcinomas and endometrioid carcinoma (EC). Most of these models were developed using technologies intended to target the ovarian surface epithelium (OSE), the cell type long believed to be the origin of EOC. More recent evidence has highlighted what is likely a more prevalent role of the secretory cell of the fallopian tube in the ontogeny of EOC, however none of the GEM of EOC have demonstrated successful targeting of this important cell type. The precise technologies exploited to develop the existing GEM of EOC are varied and carry with them advantages and disadvantages. The use of tissue specific promoters to model disease has been very successful, but the lack of any truly specific OSE or oviductal secretory cell promoters makes the outcomes of these models quite unpredictable. Effecting genetic change by the administration of adenoviral vectors expressing Cre recombinase may alleviate the perceived need for tissue specific promoters, however the efficiencies of infection of different cell types is subject to numerous biological parameters that may lead to preferential targeting of certain cell populations. One important future avenue of GEM of EOC is the evaluation of the role of genetic modifiers. We have found that genetic background can lead to contrasting phenotypes in one model of ovarian cancer, and data from other laboratories have also hinted that the exact genetic background of the model may influence the resulting phenotype. The different genetic backgrounds may modify the biology of the tumors in a manner that will be relevant to human disease, but they may also be modifying parameters which impact the response of the host to the technologies employed to develop the model.
    Journal of Ovarian Research 11/2012; 5(1):39. DOI:10.1186/1757-2215-5-39 · 2.43 Impact Factor
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