The association of menopause status with physical function: the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation.
ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine whether postmenopause status is associated with self-reported limitations in physical function. METHODS: The Study of Women's Health Across the Nation is a multisite, multiethnic, longitudinal study of midlife women. Women aged 45 to 57 years (N = 2,566) completed the physical function scale of the Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form 36 on visit 4 (2000-2001). Scores created a three-category variable of physical function limitations: none (86-100), moderate (51-85), and substantial (0-50). In the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation, menopause status is a five-category list variable based on menstrual bleeding patterns and gynecological surgery. Premenopausal and perimenopausal women using hormones (n = 284) or missing physical function scores (n = 46) were excluded. Multinomial logistic regression was used to relate physical function and menopause status after adjustment for age, ethnicity, site, education, body mass index (BMI), and self-reported diabetes, hypertension, arthritis, depressive symptoms, smoking, and hormone use among postmenopausal women. RESULTS: Of 2,236 women, 8% were premenopausal, 51% were early perimenopausal, 12% were late perimenopausal, 24% were naturally postmenopausal, and 5% were surgically postmenopausal. In the full model, substantial limitations in physical function were higher in postmenopausal women, whether naturally postmenopausal (odds ratio, 3.82; 95% CI, 1.46-10.0) or surgically postmenopausal (odds ratio, 3.54; 95% CI, 1.15-10.84), than in premenopausal women. These associations were attenuated by higher BMI and depressive symptoms but remained significant. Moderate limitations in physical function were not significantly related to menopause status. CONCLUSIONS: Women experiencing surgical or naturally occurring postmenopause report greater limitations in physical function compared with premenopausal women, independent of age and only partly explained by higher BMI and depressive symptoms. This suggests that physiological changes in menopause could contribute directly to limitations in physical function.
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ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: This study estimates the prevalence of disability among late middle-aged women and identifies important correlates of disability among this population. METHOD: Disability was assessed among 376 participants of the Michigan Study of Women's Health Across the Nation cohort at the 2011 follow-up using the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule. Demographic and health measures were related to disability status using logistic regression models (none or mild vs. moderate, severe, or extreme disability). RESULTS: Nearly 25% of women reported moderate to extreme global disability. African American race/ethnicity, economic strain, peripheral neuropathy, and depressive symptomatology were associated with global disability. Obesity, knee osteoarthritis, and hypertension were only associated with disability for the mobility domain (getting around). DISCUSSION: The prevalence of disability is relatively high among this population of late middle-aged women. Efforts to prevent or forestall disability should be extended to include middle-aged populations as they may be most amenable to intervention.Journal of Aging and Health 05/2013; · 1.56 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The frailty index (FI), defined by a deficit accumulation approach, has emerged as a promising concept in gerontological research, but applications have been mostly restricted to populations from Canada and the United States aged 65 years or older. Baseline data from the German ESTHER cohort study (N 9,886; age 50-75; mean follow-up 8.7 years) were used to create a FI through a deficit accumulation approach. For estimation of frailty prevalence, we used cut-points for the FI to define three categories (non-frail 0 to ≤0.20; pre-frail >0.20 to <0.45; frail ≥0.45). We assessed variation of the FI by age and sex: 10-year survival according to baseline FI was assessed by Kaplan-Meier curves and bivariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard models. Cubic splines were used to assess sex-specific dose-response associations. Prevalence of frailty was 9.2 and 10.5 % in women and men, respectively. Age-specific prevalence of frailty ranged from 4.6 % in 50-54 year old participants to 17.0 % in 70-75 year old participants. Below 60 years of age, men had a higher FI than women. However, the FI showed a stronger increase with age among women (3.1 % per year) than among men (1.7 % per year) and was higher among women than men in older age groups. Adjusted hazard ratios (95 % confidence intervals) for all-cause mortality were 1.08 (0.84-1.39), 1.32 (1.05-1.66), 1.77 (1.41-2.22), and 2.60 (2.11-3.20) for the 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 5th quintile of the FI compared to 1st quintile, respectively. There was a strong dose-response relationship between the FI and total mortality among both men and women and both younger (<65 years) and older subjects. We found sex differences in the FI and its increase with age, along with a consistent strong association of the FI with mortality in both sexes, even for age group 50-64.European Journal of Epidemiology 03/2014; · 5.12 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To evaluate the longitudinal associations between menopausal status, related hormonal changes, and level of self-reported physical functioning. Study included 2,495 women (age: 45-57 between 2000 and 2001) from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation. Physical functioning scale of the Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form (SF-36; score 0-100) was categorized as: no limitation (86-100), moderate limitation (51-85), and substantial limitation (0-50). Study variables were collected between 2000 (visit-04) and 2011 (visit-12) at five timepoints. Statistical models were adjusted for age at visit-04, time since visit-04, ethnicity, site, economic status, level and change in body mass index, level and change in physical activity, and presence of comorbid conditions. In final models, natural and surgical postmenopausal women had significantly higher odds of functional limitation, compared with premenopausal women. Less reduction in estradiol and testosterone since visit-04 were significantly associated with lower odds of functional limitation, while greater increase in sex hormone-binding globulin was associated with higher odds of functional limitation. Our findings suggest the menopause-related changes in endogenous sex hormones as a possible mechanism of action to explain the greater limitation in physical functioning reported in women at midlife.The Journals of Gerontology Series A Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences 01/2014; · 4.31 Impact Factor