The association of menopause status with physical function: The Study of Women's Health Across the Nation
ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine whether postmenopause status is associated with self-reported limitations in physical function. METHODS: The Study of Women's Health Across the Nation is a multisite, multiethnic, longitudinal study of midlife women. Women aged 45 to 57 years (N = 2,566) completed the physical function scale of the Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form 36 on visit 4 (2000-2001). Scores created a three-category variable of physical function limitations: none (86-100), moderate (51-85), and substantial (0-50). In the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation, menopause status is a five-category list variable based on menstrual bleeding patterns and gynecological surgery. Premenopausal and perimenopausal women using hormones (n = 284) or missing physical function scores (n = 46) were excluded. Multinomial logistic regression was used to relate physical function and menopause status after adjustment for age, ethnicity, site, education, body mass index (BMI), and self-reported diabetes, hypertension, arthritis, depressive symptoms, smoking, and hormone use among postmenopausal women. RESULTS: Of 2,236 women, 8% were premenopausal, 51% were early perimenopausal, 12% were late perimenopausal, 24% were naturally postmenopausal, and 5% were surgically postmenopausal. In the full model, substantial limitations in physical function were higher in postmenopausal women, whether naturally postmenopausal (odds ratio, 3.82; 95% CI, 1.46-10.0) or surgically postmenopausal (odds ratio, 3.54; 95% CI, 1.15-10.84), than in premenopausal women. These associations were attenuated by higher BMI and depressive symptoms but remained significant. Moderate limitations in physical function were not significantly related to menopause status. CONCLUSIONS: Women experiencing surgical or naturally occurring postmenopause report greater limitations in physical function compared with premenopausal women, independent of age and only partly explained by higher BMI and depressive symptoms. This suggests that physiological changes in menopause could contribute directly to limitations in physical function.
- Menopause (New York, N.Y.) 11/2012; 19(11):1169. DOI:10.1097/gme.0b013e31827001be · 2.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Many women stopped hormone therapy (HT) or estrogen therapy (ET) after the Women's Health Initiative results were published in 2002. This study assessed the incidence of hypertension, weight gain, and dyslipidemia; conditions that predispose to chronic diseases; medication use; and quality of life in women who used HT/ET for at least 5 years and subsequently stopped its use compared with those who continued its use. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted. All consenting eligible women (aged 56-73 y) in physicians' offices were interviewed, and measurements of weight, height, waist-to-hip ratio, and body fat were performed. Standardized quality-of-life and menopausal and medical questionnaires were administered. Three groups were compared: group 1, women who have remained on HT/ET; group 2, women who have resumed HT/ET after stopping for at least 6 months; and group 3, women who have stopped HT/ET and have not resumed. RESULTS: One hundred fifty-nine women were enrolled in group 1, 43 women were enrolled in group 2, and 108 women were enrolled in group 3. Women's characteristics were similar, except that group 3 was 1.5 (0.5) years older and had 4.4 (0.7) years less HT/ET use than groups 1 and 2. Utian Quality of Life scores were significantly lower in group 3 (83.4 [12.5]) than in groups 1 and 2 (87.6 [13.3], P < 0.02), particularly in the occupational satisfaction scale. About 16.6% and 16.3% of women in groups 1 and 2 were on antihypertensive medication, respectively, compared with 27.4% in group 3 (P < 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Discontinuation of HT/ET may predispose some women to the risk of hypertension and may affect their quality of life.Menopause (New York, N.Y.) 04/2013; DOI:10.1097/GME.0b013e31828cfd3b · 2.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: This study estimates the prevalence of disability among late middle-aged women and identifies important correlates of disability among this population. METHOD: Disability was assessed among 376 participants of the Michigan Study of Women's Health Across the Nation cohort at the 2011 follow-up using the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule. Demographic and health measures were related to disability status using logistic regression models (none or mild vs. moderate, severe, or extreme disability). RESULTS: Nearly 25% of women reported moderate to extreme global disability. African American race/ethnicity, economic strain, peripheral neuropathy, and depressive symptomatology were associated with global disability. Obesity, knee osteoarthritis, and hypertension were only associated with disability for the mobility domain (getting around). DISCUSSION: The prevalence of disability is relatively high among this population of late middle-aged women. Efforts to prevent or forestall disability should be extended to include middle-aged populations as they may be most amenable to intervention.Journal of Aging and Health 05/2013; DOI:10.1177/0898264313488165 · 1.56 Impact Factor