Quercetin Triggers Apoptosis of Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced Osteoclasts and Inhibits Bone Resorption in RAW264.7 Cells

Department of Orthopaedics, the First Affiliated Hospital, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, PR China.
Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry (Impact Factor: 3.55). 01/2012; 30(1):123-36. DOI: 10.1159/000339052
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Quercetin, a flavonoid present in vegetables, has anti-inflammatory properties and potential inhibitory effects on bone resorption. Up to date, the effect of quercetin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced osteoclastogenesis has not yet been reported. In the current study, we evaluated the effect of quercetin on LPS-induced osteoclast apoptosis and bone resorption.
RAW264.7 cells were non-treated, treated with LPS alone, or treated with both LPS and quercetin. After treatment, the number of osteoclasts, cell viability, bone resorption and osteoclast apoptosis were measured. The expressions of osteoclast-related genes including tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9) and cathepsin K (CK) were determined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Protein levels of receptor activator of nuclear factor-ĸB (RANK), tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), Bax, Bcl-2 and mitogenactivated protein kinases (MAPKs) were measured using Western blotting assays. The MAPK signaling pathway was blocked by pretreatment with MAPK inhibitors.
LPS directly promoted osteoclast differentiation of RAW264.7 cells and upregulated the protein expression of RANK, TRAF6 and COX-2; while quercetin significantly decreased the number of LPS-induced osteoclasts in a dose-dependent manner. None of the treatments increased cytotoxicity in RAW264.7 cells. Quercetin inhibited mRNA expressions of osteoclast-related genes and protein levels of RANK, TRAF6 and COX-2 in LPS-induced mature osteoclasts. Quercetin also induced apoptosis and inhibited bone resorptive activity in LPS-induced mature osteoclasts. Furthermore, quercetin promoted the apoptotic signaling pathway including increasing the phosphorylation of p38-MAPK, c-Jun N-terminal kinases/stress-activated protein kinases (JNK/SAPK), and Bax, while inhibited Bcl-2 expression.
Quercetin could supress LPS-induced osteoclast bone resorption through blocking RANK signaling and inhibiting the expression of osteoclast-related genes. Quercetin also promoted LPS-induced osteoclast apoptosis via activation of the MAPK apoptotic signaling pathway. These findings suggest that quercetin could be of potential use as a therapeutic agent to treat bacteria-induced bone resorption.

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