Aims: Quercetin, a flavonoid present in vegetables, has anti-inflammatory properties and potential inhibitory effects on bone resorption. Up to date, the effect of quercetin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced osteoclastogenesis has not yet been reported. In the current study, we evaluated the effect of quercetin on LPS-induced osteoclast apoptosis and bone resorption. Methods: RAW264.7 cells were non-treated, treated with LPS alone, or treated with both LPS and quercetin. After treatment, the number of osteoclasts, cell viability, bone resorption and osteoclast apoptosis were measured. The expressions of osteoclast-related genes including tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9) and cathepsin K (CK) were determined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Protein levels of receptor activator of nuclear factor-ĸB (RANK), tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), Bax, Bcl-2 and mitogenactivated protein kinases (MAPKs) were measured using Western blotting assays. The MAPK signaling pathway was blocked by pretreatment with MAPK inhibitors. Results: LPS directly promoted osteoclast differentiation of RAW264.7 cells and upregulated the protein expression of RANK, TRAF6 and COX-2; while quercetin significantly decreased the number of LPS-induced osteoclasts in a dose-dependent manner. None of the treatments increased cytotoxicity in RAW264.7 cells. Quercetin inhibited mRNA expressions of osteoclast-related genes and protein levels of RANK, TRAF6 and COX-2 in LPS-induced mature osteoclasts. Quercetin also induced apoptosis and inhibited bone resorptive activity in LPS-induced mature osteoclasts. Furthermore, quercetin promoted the apoptotic signaling pathway including increasing the phosphorylation of p38-MAPK, c-Jun N-terminal kinases/stress-activated protein kinases
"However, it is supposed that the former represents more accurate results than the later does, since histochemical staining often detects a non-specific artifact, and thereby, shows inconsistent results. It is important to note that an increase in the mitochondrial pro-apoptotic/pro-survival protein ratio is required for apoptosis in various cells, including OCs . All of the extracts increased expression of Bax, Bad and Bak, whereas the effects on expression of Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL differed for each extract (Figure 4). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Osteoporosis (OP) is one of the most serious diseases in the modern world, and OP patients frequently suffer from fragility fractures in the hip, spine and wrist, resulting in a limited quality of life. Although bisphosphonates (BPs) are the most effective class of anti-bone-resorptive drugs currently available and the most commonly prescribed for the clinical treatment of OP, they are known to cause serious side effects such as bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw. Novel therapeutic materials that can replace the use of BPs have therefore been developed.
We commenced an institutional collaborative project in which candidates of herbal extracts were selected from more than 400 bioactive herbal products for their potential therapeutic effects not only in OP, but also in oral and skeletal diseases. In the present study, we report on 3 Chinese medical herbal extracts from the root barks of Melia azedarach, Corydalis turtschaninovii, and Cynanchum atratum.
All of these extracts inhibited osteoclast proliferation and induced apoptosis by up-regulation of caspase activity and increase of mitochondrial pro-apoptotic proteins expression. Furthermore, the extracts enhanced differentiation, but did not affect proliferation of both osteoblasts and chondrocytes. The osteo-inducible effect was also observed in cultured primary bone marrow cells.
Although these extracts have been utilized in traditional Chinese medicine for hundreds of years, there are no reports to our knowledge, on their therapeutic effects in OP. In this study, we elucidate the potency of these herbal extracts as novel candidates for OP therapy.
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 01/2014; 14(1):29. DOI:10.1186/1472-6882-14-29 · 2.02 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bone degradation is a serious complication of chronic inflammatory diseases such as septic arthritis, osteomyelitis and infected orthopedic implant failure. At present, effective therapeutic treatments for lipopolysaccharide (LPS)‑induced bone destruction are limited to antibiotics and surgical repair in chronic inflammatory diseases. The present study aimed to evaluate the mechanism of LPS on osteoclast differentiation and activation. RAW264.7 cells were non-induced, or induced by the receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB (RANK) ligand (RANKL) and macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF), and then treated with LPS. Following treatment, the number of osteoclasts and cell viability were measured. The expression of osteoclast-related genes including tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), cathepsin K (CK), carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) was determined by RT-PCR. Protein levels of RANK, tumor necrosis factor receptor‑associated factor 6 (TRAF6), COX-2 and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) were measured using western blotting assays. LPS promoted osteoclast differentiation of RAW264.7 cells and differentiated osteoclasts. LPS significantly increased mRNA expression of osteoclast-related genes in RAW264.7 cells. Differentiated osteoclasts were treated with LPS (100 ng/ml) and the results showed a significantly increased mRNA expression of osteoclast-related genes and protein levels of RANK, TRAF6 and COX-2. Furthermore, LPS at 100 ng/ml significantly promoted the MAPK pathway including increasing the phosphorylation of c‑Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) and the phosphorylation of the extracellular signal‑regulated kinase (ERK1/2). In conclusion, LPS promoted osteoclast differentiation and activation by enhancing RANK signaling and COX-2 expression. LPS also promoted osteoclast differentiation via activation of the JNK and ERK1/2 cell proliferation pathways.
International Journal of Molecular Medicine 06/2013; 32(2). DOI:10.3892/ijmm.2013.1406 · 2.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background/Aims: Platelets are critically important for primary haemostasis and the major players in thrombotic vascular occlusion. Platelets are activated by agonists, such as thrombin and collagen-related peptide as well as second-wave mediators including thromboxane A2 via different intracellular signaling pathways resulting in degranulation, aggregation and thrombus formation. Platelet activation is paralleled by phosphorylation and activation of p38 MAPK. The limited specificity of hitherto known p38 MAPK inhibitors precluded safe conclusions on the precise role of p38 MAPK in the regulation of platelet function. The present study examined the impact of Skepinone-L, a novel and highly selective inhibitor of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), on platelet activation and thrombus formation. Methods: Experiments were performed in freshly isolated human platelets. Protein phosphorylation was quantified by Western blotting, thromboxane B2 synthesis by enzyme immunoassay, ATP release by ChronoLume luciferin assay, cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration by Fura-2 fluorescence-measurements, platelet aggregation by a light transmissions measurement and in vitro thrombus formation by a flow chamber. Results: Skepinone-L (1 μM) virtually abrogated the phosphorylation of platelet p38 MAPK substrate Hsp27 following stimulation with CRP (1 μg/ml), thrombin (5 mU/ml) or thromboxane A2 analogue U-46619 (1 μM). Furthermore, Skepinone-L significantly blunted activation-dependent platelet secretion and aggregation following threshold concentrations of CRP, thrombin and thromboxane A2 analogue U-46619. Skepinone-L did not impair platelet Ca(2+) signaling but prevented agonist-induced thromboxane A2 synthesis through abrogation of p38 MAPK-dependent phosphorylation of platelet cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2). Skepinone-L further markedly blunted thrombus formation under low (500-s) and high (1700-s) arterial shear rates. Conclusions: The present study discloses a powerful inhibiting effect of p38 MAPK-blocker Skepinone-L on platelet activation and thrombus formation.
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