Combined oral contraceptives’ influence on weight, body composition, height, and bone mineral density in girls younger than 18 years: A systematic review
Combined oral contraceptives (COCs) are increasingly used by adolescents. The aim of this review is to investigate the evidence regarding COCs' influence on weight, height and bone mineral density (BMD) in girls younger than 18 years.
Systematic literature search using PubMed/Medline and Scopus (January 1990-February 2012) on COCs for girls under 18 years of age and the possible influence on body parameters. MeSH terms: Oral contraception; Adolescent; Weight; Body composition; Height; Bone mineral density.
There is no evidence that COCs induce weight gain in girls younger than 18 years. Obese girls are not at higher risk of gaining weight. COCs do not cause changes in body fat and lean mass beyond the changes caused by natural development. Moreover, growth and stature are unaffected. Few studies indicate that COCs have a negative impact on BMD, but the evidence is presently too limited for definite conclusions.
Studies in young users are few. Presently, there are no indications of a negative impact of COCs on weight, body composition or height. Lesser increases in BMD cannot be excluded. As the demand for COCs is increasing among the youngest girls, there is a need for prospective studies addressing this issue.
Available from: Chandrika J Piyathilake
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Identification of associations between global DNA methylation and excess body weight (EBW) and related diseases and their modifying factors are an unmet research need that may lead to decreasing DNA methylation-associated disease risks in humans. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the following; 1) Association between the degree of peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) L1 methylation and folate, and indicators of EBW, 2) Association between the degree of PBMC L1 methylation and folate, and insulin resistance (IR) as indicated by a higher homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR).
The study population consisted of 470 child-bearing age women diagnosed with abnormal pap. The degree of PBMC L1 methylation was assessed by pyrosequencing. Logistic regression models specified indicators of EBW (body mass index-BMI, body fat-BF and waist circumference-WC) or HOMA-IR as dependent variables and the degree of PBMC L1 methylation and circulating concentrations of folate as the independent predictor of primary interest.
Women with a lower degree of PBMC L1 methylation and lower plasma folate concentrations were significantly more likely to have higher BMI, % BF or WC (OR = 2.49, 95% CI:1.41-4.47, P = 0.002; OR = 2.49, 95% CI:1.40-4.51, P = 0.002 and OR = 1.98, 95% = 1.14-3.48 P = 0.0145, respectively) and higher HOMA-IR (OR = 1.78, 95% CI:1.02-3.13, P = 0.041).
Our results demonstrated that a lower degree of PBMC L1 methylation is associated with excess body weight and higher HOMA-IR, especially in the presence of lower concentrations of plasma folate.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(1):e54544. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0054544 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The mean age of first sexual intercourse is still around 17 in France, but a lot of teenagers are concerned by contraception before, with approximately 25% of sexually active 15-year-old girls. The contraceptive method must take into consideration some typical features of this population, as sporadic and non-planned sexual activity, with several sexual partners in a short period of time. In 2004, the "Haute Autorité de santé" has recommended, as first-line method, combined oral contraceptive (COC) pills, in association with male condoms. Copper-containing intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUCD) and etonogestrel-containing subcutaneous implant have been suggested but not recommended. However, oral contraceptive pill, as a user-based method, carries an important typical-use failure rate, because remembering taking a daily pill, and dealing with stop periods, may be challenging. Some easier-to-use method should be kept in mind, as 28-day COC packs, transdermal contraceptive patches, and vaginal contraceptive rings. Moreover, American studies have shown that long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARC), i.e. IUCD and implant, have many advantages for teenagers: very effective, safe, invisible. They seem well-fitted for this population, with high satisfaction and continuation rates, as long as side effects are well explained. Thus, LARC methods should be proposed more widely to teenagers. Anyway, before prescribing a contraceptive method, it is important to determine the specific situation of every teenager, to let them choose the method that they consider as appropriate in their own case, and to think about the availability of the chosen method. It is necessary to explain how to handle mistakes or misses with user-based contraceptive methods, and emergency contraception can be anticipated and prescribed in advanced provision. The use of male condoms should be encouraged for adolescents, with another effective contraceptive method, in order to reduce the high risk of sexually transmitted infections (STI) in this population.
Archives de Pédiatrie 04/2013; 20(6). DOI:10.1016/j.arcped.2013.03.002 · 0.41 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This review will empower the primary care provider (PCP) to evaluate, manage, and refer as needed adolescents with dysmenorrhea and/or chronic pelvic pain (CPP) who are suspected to have endometriosis.
Endometriosis is a common cause of CPP in adolescents who do not respond to primary medical treatment. The presentation in adolescents is unique, causing high rates of misdiagnosis or delayed treatment. Endometriosis-related pain has a marked negative impact on social and mental health. Simple treatments that are available in the primary care setting can alleviate pain and improve quality of life for these young women if initiated in a timely fashion.
Adolescents usually turn to their PCP for evaluation of dysmenorrhea and CPP. By maintaining a high index of suspicion, initiating treatment, and referring when needed, the PCP can have a tremendous effect on the patient's present and future quality of life.
Current opinion in pediatrics 06/2013; 25(4). DOI:10.1097/MOP.0b013e3283628092 · 2.53 Impact Factor
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.