Combined oral contraceptives' influence on weight, body composition, height, and bone mineral density in girls younger than 18 years: a systematic review.
ABSTRACT Combined oral contraceptives (COCs) are increasingly used by adolescents. The aim of this review is to investigate the evidence regarding COCs' influence on weight, height and bone mineral density (BMD) in girls younger than 18 years.
Systematic literature search using PubMed/Medline and Scopus (January 1990-February 2012) on COCs for girls under 18 years of age and the possible influence on body parameters. MeSH terms: Oral contraception; Adolescent; Weight; Body composition; Height; Bone mineral density.
There is no evidence that COCs induce weight gain in girls younger than 18 years. Obese girls are not at higher risk of gaining weight. COCs do not cause changes in body fat and lean mass beyond the changes caused by natural development. Moreover, growth and stature are unaffected. Few studies indicate that COCs have a negative impact on BMD, but the evidence is presently too limited for definite conclusions.
Studies in young users are few. Presently, there are no indications of a negative impact of COCs on weight, body composition or height. Lesser increases in BMD cannot be excluded. As the demand for COCs is increasing among the youngest girls, there is a need for prospective studies addressing this issue.
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ABSTRACT: Objectives To evaluate the effects of a combined oral contraceptive (COC) containing dienogest/oestradiol valerate (DNG/E2V) on bone mineral density (BMD) and on serum and urinary bone turnover markers in young, healthy, fertile women. Methods At baseline and after three and six months of intake of the aforementioned COC, serum and urinary calcium, osteocalcin, urinary pyridinoline (PYD), and deoxypyridinoline (D-PYD) of 30 women aged 21 to 34 years were measured. At baseline and after six months, lumbar bone mineral density was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Results Urinary levels of PYD and D-PYD were significantly lower at three and six months in comparison with basal values (p < 0.05). Serum calcium levels showed an increasing trend, which reached statistical significance after six months in comparison with basal values while urinary levels of calcium did not vary significantly. Serum osteocalcin levels were somewhat, but not significantly, lower during pill use in comparison with basal values. After six months, spinal BMD values did not differ significantly from basal values. Conclusions The DNG/E2V COC has no short-term adverse effect on bone turnover markers. No significant change in BMD was observed after six months of use of that pill.The European Journal of Contraception and Reproductive Health Care 07/2013; DOI:10.3109/13625187.2013.811483 · 1.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This review will empower the primary care provider (PCP) to evaluate, manage, and refer as needed adolescents with dysmenorrhea and/or chronic pelvic pain (CPP) who are suspected to have endometriosis. Endometriosis is a common cause of CPP in adolescents who do not respond to primary medical treatment. The presentation in adolescents is unique, causing high rates of misdiagnosis or delayed treatment. Endometriosis-related pain has a marked negative impact on social and mental health. Simple treatments that are available in the primary care setting can alleviate pain and improve quality of life for these young women if initiated in a timely fashion. Adolescents usually turn to their PCP for evaluation of dysmenorrhea and CPP. By maintaining a high index of suspicion, initiating treatment, and referring when needed, the PCP can have a tremendous effect on the patient's present and future quality of life.Current opinion in pediatrics 06/2013; 25(4). DOI:10.1097/MOP.0b013e3283628092 · 2.74 Impact Factor
Article: [Contraception and adolescence.][Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The mean age of first sexual intercourse is still around 17 in France, but a lot of teenagers are concerned by contraception before, with approximately 25% of sexually active 15-year-old girls. The contraceptive method must take into consideration some typical features of this population, as sporadic and non-planned sexual activity, with several sexual partners in a short period of time. In 2004, the "Haute Autorité de santé" has recommended, as first-line method, combined oral contraceptive (COC) pills, in association with male condoms. Copper-containing intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUCD) and etonogestrel-containing subcutaneous implant have been suggested but not recommended. However, oral contraceptive pill, as a user-based method, carries an important typical-use failure rate, because remembering taking a daily pill, and dealing with stop periods, may be challenging. Some easier-to-use method should be kept in mind, as 28-day COC packs, transdermal contraceptive patches, and vaginal contraceptive rings. Moreover, American studies have shown that long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARC), i.e. IUCD and implant, have many advantages for teenagers: very effective, safe, invisible. They seem well-fitted for this population, with high satisfaction and continuation rates, as long as side effects are well explained. Thus, LARC methods should be proposed more widely to teenagers. Anyway, before prescribing a contraceptive method, it is important to determine the specific situation of every teenager, to let them choose the method that they consider as appropriate in their own case, and to think about the availability of the chosen method. It is necessary to explain how to handle mistakes or misses with user-based contraceptive methods, and emergency contraception can be anticipated and prescribed in advanced provision. The use of male condoms should be encouraged for adolescents, with another effective contraceptive method, in order to reduce the high risk of sexually transmitted infections (STI) in this population.Archives de Pédiatrie 04/2013; 20(6). DOI:10.1016/j.arcped.2013.03.002 · 0.41 Impact Factor