To evaluate public knowledge regarding predisposing factors, fatality and prevention of Tetanus and Rabies and attitudes toward vaccination and post-exposure prophylaxis.
A population-based, cross-sectional survey was conducted in all the 18 towns of Karachi, the largest metropolitan city of Pakistan, from December 2007 to January 2008. Men and women of more than 18 years of age were included in the study which used a self-reporting questionarre as its tool.
There were 1201 people interviewed by the study. The majority of respondents had known or heard about Tetanus (n = 973; 81%) and rabies (n = 699; 58%). There were 29 (2.5%) reported dog bites on the subjects themselves and 218(18%) respondents reported dog bites among their family members during the preceeding one year. Only three (11%) of these dog bite victims received some kind of vaccine or post-exposure prophylaxis. The majority of the participants were not aware of the fatality of these diseases and the importance of vaccination and post-exposure prophylaxis. Of the total respondents, 563 (47%) reported an injury or wound during the preceeding one year. Of them, 426 (76%) received a Tetanus injection. Out of the total study population, 1019 (85%) respondents did not know that Tetanus could be a fatal disease, and 844 (70%) did not know that Tetanus could affect and kill newborns. Literate people and males were more likely to have adequate knowledge on multivariate analysis.
Minor injuries and dog bites are a common occurrence in Karachi. Only a small proportion of these patients received post-exposure treatment. Most of the participants were not aware of the fatality of these diseases and the importance and affordability of vaccination in case of dog bites and minor trauma.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Researchers analyse and present datasets after the
collection phase of studies. This step is most crucial as it
leads to the discussion on the entire report, depending on
the objective of the study. Nevertheless, researchers abide great difficulties due to unawareness of statistical tools to be used as per objective. Different studies report that many medical professionals are keen to learn statistical tools. However, they start repulsing from them when they encounter difficulties in analysis. 1,2 This phobia may be due to mathematical tabulation and interpretation of the findings. Nevertheless, if researchers can learn the core concept of statistical analysis it would help them tremendously. All correct analyses are based on the objective of the study. Guidelines of International Committee of Medical Journals Editors (ICMJE), explains the importance of acceptable reporting of statistics: "Describe statistical methods with enough detail to enable a knowledgeable reader with access to the original data to verify the reported results." 3 Types of Statistical Analyses: Mainly, there are two types of analyses involved in statistical findings. One is descriptive, another is inferential. In descriptive statistics, researcher only describes the findings of the collected data. Inferential statistics includes methods to generalize data findings to the related populations with certain level of confidence and assurance of significance of results. It is necessary to consider some sets of principles while conducting such statistical computations. Researchers should also be cautious while presenting such statistical analyses. In this article, the considerations of descriptive statistics findings will be under the pen. Inferential statistics will be mentioned in subsequent articles of the 'Learning Research' series.
Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association 07/2012; 62(7):741-43. · 0.41 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An estimated 55,000 people die from rabies annually. Factors promoting dog vaccination, estimates of vaccination coverage and knowledge on rabies are important for effective rabies control. We sought to establish these estimates at household (HH) level and whether rabies knowledge is associated with proper control practices.
Cross-sectional cluster survey with two-stage sampling was employed in Kakamega County to enroll HH members above 18 years. A set of questions related to rabies knowledge and practice were used to score participant response. Score above the sample mean was equated to adequate knowledge and proper practices respectively. Independent t-test was used to evaluate the differences of sample mean scores based on dog vaccination status. Bivariate analysis was used to associate knowledge to practices.
Three hundred and ninety HHs enrolled and had a population of 754 dogs with 35% (n = 119) HH having vaccinated dogs within past 12 months. Overall mean score for knowledge was 7.0 (±2.8) with range (0-11) and 6.3 (±1.2) for practice with range (0-8). There was a statistically significant difference in mean knowledge (DF = 288, p < 0.01) and practice (DF = 283, p = 0.001) of HH with vaccinated dogs compared to ones with unvaccinated dogs. Participants with adequate rabies knowledge were more likely to have proper health seeking practices 139 (80%) (OR = 3.0, 95% CI = 1.4-6.8) and proper handling practices of suspected rabid dog 327 (88%) (OR = 5.4, 95% CI = 2.7-10.6).
Rabies vaccination below the 80% recommended for herd immunity. Mass vaccination campaign needed. More innovative ways of translating knowledge into proper rabies control practice are warranted.
Pan African Medical Journal 01/2014; 19:255. DOI:10.11604/pamj.2014.19.255.4745
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