To measure Anthropometric data (Height and Weight) of Pakistani school children (of different socioeconomic and cultural background) 3-16 year, to develop growth centile charts, based on the above measurement and to document obesity and stunting in Pakistani Paediatric population, based on the above measurement.
A Cross-sectional study with multistage stratified sampling was done in a Nationwide project of Higher Education Commission (HEC, Ref no: 20-441/R&D/2008) to develop growth centile charts of Pakistani paediatric population. Study was conducted from 2006-2009. Children studying in private and government schools of the four provinces of Pakistan were included. Prior to starting the study permission from the principal of the respective school and parents was taken. A total of 12837 children with normal birth weight, complete immunization, no history of chronic infection from 36-192 months (3-16 year) were included. Heights (cms), weight (kg), for Body Mass Index (BMI) (kg/m2), 24 hour diet recall was obtained. All socioeconomic groups were included. Food records of the children were subjected to USDA food exchange list.
The average height (cms) of children was 139.11 +/- 18.44, average weight (kg) was 33.21 +/- 11.25 and average BMI was 16.76 +/- 3.22 kg/m2 (range from 11.3-41.98). The 95th centile according to CDC charts for the age groups 3-16 years were calculated. A total of 664 (5.1%) children were found to be obese. In the age group 3-5 years, > 5-10 year and > 10-16 year; 29 (8.1%), 272 (5.1%) and 363 (5.1%) were found to be obese, respectively. CDC height and weight in the three groups of Pakistani children > 3-5 year, > 5-10 year, > 10-16 year were at the 10-25 centile.
Overall, the prevalence of stunting was 14%. Height and weight was 10-25 centile of the CDC charts. Obesity was 5%. Pakistani centile charts of healthy children from Pakistan have been made.
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[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective To describe the growth pattern from birth to 2 years of UK-born white British and Pakistani infants.
Design Birth cohort.
Setting Bradford, UK.
Participants 314 white British boys, 383 Pakistani boys, 328 white British girls and 409 Pakistani girls.
Main outcome measures Weight and length trajectories based on repeat measurements from birth to 2 years.
Results Linear spline multilevel models for weight and length with knot points at 4 and 9 months fitted the data well. At birth Pakistani boys were 210 g lighter (95% CI −290 to −120) and 0.5 cm shorter (−1.04 to 0.02) and Pakistani girls were 180 g lighter (−260 to −100) and 0.5 cm shorter (−0.91 to −0.03) than white British boys and girls, respectively. Pakistani infants gained length faster than white British infants between 0 and 4 months (+0.3 cm/month (0.1 to 0.5) for boys and +0.4 cm/month (0.2 to 0.6) for girls) and gained more weight per month between 9 and 24 months (+10 g/month (0 to 30) for boys and +30 g/month (20 to 40) for girls). Adjustment for maternal height attenuated ethnic differences in weight and length at birth, but not in postnatal growth. Adjustment for other confounders did not explain differences in any outcomes.
Conclusions Pakistani infants were lighter and had shorter predicted mean length at birth than white British infants, but gained weight and length quicker in infancy. By age 2 years both ethnic groups had similar weight, but Pakistani infants were on average taller than white British infants.
Archives of Disease in Childhood 02/2013; 98(4). DOI:10.1136/archdischild-2012-302778 · 2.90 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper studies factors that affect health and the nutritional status of children under the age of five. It attempts to identify the impact of socioeconomic factors such as household characteristics, parental education, community-level infrastructure and health knowledge on the health (measured by height and weight) of children. The study’s theoretical framework is based on the household production model and the instrumental variable technique has been implemented for estimation. Household income, illness from diarrhea and vitamin A supplements for children are treated as endogenous variables and have been instrumented. The paper uses data from Pakistan—Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) for 2007/08 for Punjab which is a household level dataset gathered by the Punjab Bureau of Statistics. The results suggest that maternal education, health knowledge and household characteristics are important determinants of child health, among other significant indicators. The channel through which maternal education affects child health is considered to be better nurturing and healthcare since the income effect of education is controlled by household income. Household characteristics—income, the number of household members, ownership of durables—prove to significantly affect the health of children in that household. Another important finding of this paper is that female children under five have better height and weight z-scores than their male counterparts. This finding rejects the common presumption of gender bias at the household level in South Asia in early years of life.
Child Indicators Research 12/2013; 6(4). DOI:10.1007/s12187-013-9186-6 · 0.96 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Optimal mass (weight) was defined in 2011 as the mass (weight) corresponding to percentile of height. Status of obesity was determined as percentage, by considering optimal mass as reference and could be used in conjunction with body-mass index (BMI) to classify an individual as obese or wasted. This work puts forward a regression model (named as KJ-Regression Model) to evaluate optimal masses of children and adults, whose heights and masses lie below third percentile or above ninety-seventh percentile. For such cases, CDC growth charts, converted into tabular form, cannot be used to determine numerical values of percentiles. Sigmoid function and linear interpolation were used to compute heights and masses corresponding to extreme percentiles (below 3 rd or above 97 th). In addition to growth curves (plots of height and mass versus age), which include plots corresponding to 0.01 th , 0.1 th , 1 st , 99 th , 99.9 th and 99.99 th percentiles, mathematical formulae are given to compute heights and masses corresponding to any value of percentile (between zero and hundred). Height and mass tables for boys and girls with entries to 5 decimal places, including those corresponding to extreme percentiles, are given in additional files.
International Journal of Biology and Biotechnology 01/2014; 11(4):623-648.