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"The mapping of the sea urchin S. purpuratus genome revealed 65 genes encoding ABC transporters (Sodergren et al., 2006). Recently, our group characterized the activity of ABCB1 and ABCC1 proteins in the gametes, embryonic cells, and pluteus larvae of Echinometra lucunter, a widespread sea urchin that inhabits the tropical and temperate waters of the Atlantic Ocean (De Souza et al., 2010; Silva-Neta et al., 2012; Torrezan et al., 2012). Our data suggest that ABC transporters act as a biochemical barrier that confers protection against chemical stress in E. lucunter embryos, but are also crucial to the fertilization process. "