Circulating Angiogenic Factors and Risk of Adverse Maternal and Perinatal Outcomes in Twin Pregnancies With Suspected Preeclampsia

Division of Maternal Fetal Medicine/Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 330 Brookline Avenue, Kirstein 382, Boston, MA 02215, USA.
Hypertension (Impact Factor: 7.63). 07/2012; 60(2):451-8. DOI: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.112.195065
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To evaluate whether angiogenic factor levels correlate with preeclampsia-related adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes in women with twin pregnancy, we studied 79 women with suspected preeclampsia in the 3rd trimester. Antiangiogenic soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1) and proangiogenic placental growth factor (PlGF) were measured at presentation on an automated platform. An adverse outcome was defined as hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets syndrome; disseminated intravascular coagulation; abruption; pulmonary edema; cerebral hemorrhage; maternal, fetal, and neonatal death; eclampsia; acute renal failure; small for gestational age; and indicated delivery. All outcomes were ascertained 2 weeks after initial evaluation. Comparing the 52 women (65.8%) who experienced an adverse outcome with the 27 women (34.2%) without an adverse outcome, the median sFlt-1 was elevated (11461.5 pg/mL [8794.0-14847.5] versus 7495.0 pg/mL [3498.0-10482.0; P=0.0004]), PlGF was reduced (162.5 pg/mL [98.0-226.5] versus 224.0 pg/mL [156.0-449.0]; P=0.005), and sFlt-1/PlGF ratio was elevated (74.2 [43.5-110.5] versus 36.2 [7.1-71.3]; P=0.0005). Among those presenting <34 weeks (n=40), the difference in sFlt-1/PlGF ratio was more striking (97.7 [76.6-178.1] versus 31.7 [6.5-48.7]; P=0.001). Addition of sFlt-1/PlGF to the highest systolic blood pressure and proteinuria improved prediction of adverse outcomes. We conclude that in women with twin pregnancy and suspected preeclampsia, the sFlt-1/PlGF ratio at the time of initial evaluation is associated with subsequent adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes. These findings are similar to those in singleton pregnancies and may implicate common pathogenic pathways.

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    ABSTRACT: Preeclampsia is defined as new onset of hypertension and proteinuria at gestational week 20 or after. However, use of these measures to predict preeclampsia before its clinical onset is unreliable, and evidence suggests that preeclampsia, eclampsia, or hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelet count (HELLP) syndrome may develop without hypertension or proteinuria being evident. Because of its unpredictability, varying clinical presentation and potential adverse outcomes, pregnant women with suspected preeclampsia require intensive monitoring or hospitalization. Beyond preeclampsia diagnosis, there is a high unmet medical need for more reliable predictive markers for preeclampsia to improve maternal and fetal outcomes and reduce unnecessary hospital admissions. An imbalance of circulating angiogenic and antiangiogenic factors, including raised soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1) and decreased placental growth factor (PlGF), has been found in women diagnosed with preeclampsia and before clinical onset of the disease. The PRediction of short-term Outcome in preGNant wOmen with Suspected preeclampsIa Study (PROGNOSIS) was designed to investigate the use of the sFlt-1/PlGF ratio in the short-term prediction of preeclampsia.
    BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 09/2014; 14(1):324. DOI:10.1186/1471-2393-14-324 · 2.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Aim of the study was a critical assessment of the clinical validity of the prenatal determination of sFlt-1/PlGF for preeclampsia (PE), pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH), and proteinuria. Our analysis was based on a specificity of 95 % and a sensitivity of 82 % for the prediction of preeclampsia, as described by Elecsys (Roche). Methods: In this retrospective study the ratio of the prenatal antiangiogenic factor sFlt-1 (soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1) to the proangiogenic factor PIGF (placental growth factor) was analyzed using the electrochemiluminescence immunoassay of Elecsys (Roche Diagnostics, Mannheim, Germany) in 173 pregnant women. Sixty-three women with PE, 34 women with PIH and 6 women with proteinuria were compared to 72 controls. On average, the sFlt-1/PlGF ratio was determined 8 (controls), 2.4 (PE), 3.2 (PIH) and 4.1 (proteinuria) weeks before delivery. The PE and PIH cases were further subdivided into early (< 34 weeks of gestation) and late (≥ 34 weeks of gestation) onset groups. Statistical data analysis was done using the usual descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis. ROC curves were calculated, and the sensitivity, specificity, and negative and positive predictive value (NPV, PPV) were estimated for a threshold of 85. Results: Although the specificity of the sFlt-1/PlGF ratio was high for PE, the sensitivity was low (only 59.4 %), thus giving unsatisfying results for PE. The sensitivity only increased to 62.5 % for the early-onset PE group. Intriguingly, a high ratio was detected for the combination of IUGR (intrauterine growth restriction) and PE in the early-onset PE group (8 cases). In the control group, 4 cases exceeded the cut-off value of 85 but showed no clinical signs of PE and the birth was unremarkable. In summary, we found that the sFlt-1/PIGF ratio could not be used as a predictive test for preeclampsia but rather as an indicator for the development and estimation of the severity of PE. Thus, the test is less suitable for the reliable exclusion of PE in routine clinical practice. Recommendation: The determination of the sFlT-1/PlGF ratio is only one element for PE diagnosis in addition to the measurement of blood pressure, proteinuria, ultrasound and Doppler.
    Geburtshilfe und Frauenheilkunde 05/2013; 73(5):440-445. DOI:10.1055/s-0032-1328601 · 0.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Preeclampsia (PE) affects 2-8% of pregnancies worldwide and is a significant source of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. However, the mechanisms underlying PE are poorly understood and major questions regarding etiology and risk factors remain to be addressed. Our objective was to examine whether abnormal expression of the cardiovascular developmental transcription factor, Nkx2-5, was associated with early onset and severe preeclampsia (EOSPE). Methods: Using qPCR and immunohistochemical assay, we examined expression of Nkx2-5 and target gene expression in EOSPE and control placental tissue. We tested resulting mechanistic hypotheses in cultured cells using shRNA knockdown, qPCR, and western blot. Results: Nkx2-5 is highly expressed in racially disparate fashion (Caucasians > African Americans) in a subset of early EOSPE placentae. Nkx2-5 mRNA expression is highly correlated (Caucasians > African Americans) to mRNA expression of the preeclampsia marker sFlt-1, and of the Nkx2-5 target and RNA splicing factor, Sam68. Knockdown of Sam68 expression in cultured cells significantly impacts sFlt-1 mRNA isoform generation in vitro, supporting a mechanistic hypothesis that Nkx2-5 impacts EOSPE severity in a subset of patients via upregulation of Sam68 to increase sFlt-1 expression. Expression of additional Nkx2-5 targets potentially regulating metabolic stress response is also elevated in a racially disparate fashion in EOSPE. Conclusions: Expression of Nkx2-5 and its target genes may directly influence the genesis and racially disparate severity, and define a mechanistically distinct subclass of EOSPE.
    Hypertension in Pregnancy 07/2014; 33(4):1-15. DOI:10.3109/10641955.2014.925564 · 1.19 Impact Factor

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