Bacitracin-conjugated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization and antibacterial activity.
ABSTRACT Bacitracin-conjugated superparamagnetic iron oxide (Fe(3) O(4) ) nanoparticles were prepared by click chemistry and their antibacterial activity was investigated. After functionalization with hydrophilic and biocompatible poly(acrylic acid), water-soluble Fe(3) O(4) nanoparticles were obtained. Propargylated Fe(3) O(4) nanoparticles were then synthesized by carbodiimide reaction of propargylamine with the carboxyl groups on the surface of the iron oxide nanoparticles. By further reaction with N(3) -bacitracin in a Cu(I) -catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition, the magnetic Fe(3) O(4) nanoparticles were modified with the peptide bacitracin. The functionalized magnetic nanoparticles were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, TEM, zeta-potential analysis, FTIR spectroscopy and vibrating-sample magnetometry. Cell cytotoxicity tests indicate that bacitracin-conjugated Fe(3) O(4) nanoparticles show very low cytotoxicity to human fibroblast cells, even at relatively high concentrations. In view of the antibacterial activity of bacitracin, the biofunctionalized Fe(3) O(4) nanoparticles exhibit an antibacterial effect against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms, which is even higher than that of bacitracin itself. The enhanced antibacterial activity of the magnetic nanocomposites allows the dosage and the side effects of the antibiotic to be reduced. Due to the antibacterial effect and magnetism, the bacitracin-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles have potential application in magnetic-targeting biomedical applications.
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Article: Emerging concepts in molecular MRI.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Molecular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers the potential to image some events at the cellular and subcellular level and many significant advances have recently been witnessed in this field. The introduction of targeted MR contrast agents has enabled the imaging of sparsely expressed biological targets in vivo. Furthermore, high-throughput screens of nanoparticle libraries have identified nanoparticles that act as novel contrast agents and which can be targeted with enhanced diagnostic specificity and range. Another class of magnetic nanoparticles have also been designed to image dynamic events; these act as 'switches' and could be used in vitro, and potentially in vivo, as biosensors. Other specialized MR probes have been developed to image enzyme activity in vivo. Lastly, the use of chemical exchange and off-resonance techniques have been developed, adding another dimension to the broad capabilities of molecular MRI and offering the potential of multispectral imaging. These and other advances in molecular MRI offer great promise for the future and have significant potential for clinical translation.Current Opinion in Biotechnology 03/2007; 18(1):4-10. · 7.86 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Polysialic acid (PSA), a carbohydrate polymer attached to the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), promotes neural plasticity and tumor malignancy, but its mode of action is controversial. Here we establish that PSA controls tumor cell growth and differentiation by interfering with NCAM signaling at cell-cell contacts. Interactions between cells with different PSA and NCAM expression profiles were initiated by enzymatic removal of PSA and by ectopic expression of NCAM or PSA-NCAM. Removal of PSA from the cell surface led to reduced proliferation and activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), inducing enhanced survival and neuronal differentiation of neuroblastoma cells. Blocking with an NCAM-specific peptide prevented these effects. Combinatorial transinteraction studies with cells and membranes with different PSA and NCAM phenotypes revealed that heterophilic NCAM binding mimics the cellular responses to PSA removal. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that PSA masks heterophilic NCAM signals, having a direct impact on tumor cell growth. This provides a mechanism for how PSA may promote the genesis and progression of highly aggressive PSA-NCAM-positive tumors.Molecular and Cellular Biology 09/2003; 23(16):5908-18. · 5.37 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Poly( N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) (PVP)-coated Fe3O4 nanocrystals were prepared by a "one-pot" synthesis through the pyrolysis of ferric triacetylacetonate (Fe(acac)3) in N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone (NVP). The polymerization of NVP was followed by measuring the shear viscosity of the reaction mixture. The PVP molecules formed in the reaction mixture was investigated by gel permeation chromatography. As the resultant Fe3O4 nanocrystals presented superdispersibility in 10 different types of organic solvents and aqueous solutions with different pH, including 0.01 M phosphate-buffered saline buffer, their hydrodynamic properties in both organic and aqueous systems were investigated by dynamic light-scattering. The results indicated that the PVP-coated Fe3O4 nanocrystals can completely be dispersed forming stable colloidal solutions in both organic solvents and water. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy results suggested that PVP interacted with Fe3O4 via its carbonyl groups. Further surface analysis by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that there were both coordinating and noncoordinating segments of PVP on the particle surface; the molar ratio between them was of 1:2.6.The Journal of Physical Chemistry B 08/2008; 112(46):14390-4. · 3.61 Impact Factor