Genetic ablation of glutaredoxin-1 causes enhanced resolution of airways hyperresponsiveness and mucus metaplasia in mice with allergic airways disease.
ABSTRACT Protein-S-glutathionylation (PSSG) is an oxidative modification of reactive cysteines that has emerged as an important player in pathophysiological processes. Under physiological conditions, the thiol transferase, glutaredoxin-1 (Glrx1) catalyses deglutathionylation. Although we previously demonstrated that Glrx1 expression is increased in mice with allergic inflammation, the impact of Glrx1/PSSG in the development of allergic airways disease remains unknown. In the present study we examined the impact of genetic ablation of Glrx1 in the pathogenesis of allergic inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in mice. Glrx1(-/-) or WT mice were subjected to the antigen, ovalbumin (OVA), and parameters of allergic airways disease were evaluated 48 h after three challenges, and 48 h or 7 days after six challenges with aerosolized antigen. Although no clear increases in PSSG were observed in WT mice in response to OVA, marked increases were detected in lung tissue of mice lacking Glrx1 48 h following six antigen challenges. Inflammation and expression of proinflammatory mediators were decreased in Glrx1(-/-) mice, dependent on the time of analysis. WT and Glrx1(-/-) mice demonstrated comparable increases in AHR 48 h after three or six challenges with OVA. However, 7 days postcessation of six challenges, parameters of AHR in Glrx1(-/-) mice were resolved to control levels, accompanied by marked decreases in mucus metaplasia and expression of Muc5AC and GOB5. These results demonstrate that the Glrx1/S-glutathionylation redox status in mice is a critical regulator of AHR, suggesting that avenues to increase S-glutathionylation of specific target proteins may be beneficial to attenuate AHR.
Article: Mucus and MUC in asthma.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Asthma is characterized by chronic airway inflammation and a mucus hypersecretory phenotype comprising excess mucus secretion, goblet cell hyperplasia and submucosal gland hypertrophy. This augmented mucus secretion has been relatively undervalued in asthma compared with airway inflammation. However, mucus plugging contributes to airflow limitation and airway hyperresponsiveness, and to morbidity and mortality in asthma. We review recent contributions to this field and therapeutic avenues to control mucus hypersecretion. A distinct mucus hypersecretory phenotype may present in asthma. Overexpression of MUC5AC, MUC5B and MUC2 have been described in asthma secretions, but identification of defined biochemical abnormalities and polymorphisms of mucin genes linked to asthma remains elusive. Activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activation appears central in transducing many different stimuli, including oxidative stress, proteases and cytokines. In contrast, nitrosative stress has barely been investigated. The existence of crosstalk between EGFR and other receptor systems may provide new clues regarding the activity of acetylcholine, adenosine and other agonists of G-protein-coupled receptors and other receptor families on mucin secretion. Modern techniques for noninvasive detection of mucus pathology will advance clinical research in this field. Airway mucus hypersecretion as a part of airway remodelling represents a problem in asthma, and studies of pathophysiology and therapeutic approaches are therefore warranted. Identification of targets such as the EGFR cascade, which are crucial in excessive and abnormal mucus secretion, may lead to the rational design of new antihypersecretory drugs that may enhance future asthma treatment.Current opinion in pulmonary medicine 02/2006; 12(1):1-6. · 3.12 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Airway mucus plugging has long been recognized as a principal cause of death in asthma. However, molecular mechanisms of mucin overproduction and secretion have not been understood until recently. These mechanisms are reviewed together with ongoing investigations relating them to lung pathophysiology. Of the five secreted gel-forming mucins in mammals, only MUC5AC and MUC5B are produced in significant quantities in intrapulmonary airways. MUC5B is the principal gel-forming mucin at baseline in small airways of humans and mice, and therefore likely performs most homeostatic clearance functions. MUC5AC is the principal gel-forming mucin upregulated in airway inflammation and is under negative control by forkhead box a2 (Foxa2) and positive control by hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1). Mucin secretion is regulated separately from production, principally by extracellular triphosphate nucleotides that bind P2Y2 receptors on the lumenal surface of airway secretory cells, generating intracellular second messengers that activate the exocytic proteins, Munc13-2 and synaptotagmin-2. Markedly upregulated production of MUC5AC together with stimulated secretion leads to airflow obstruction in asthma. As MUC5B appears to mediate homeostatic functions, it may be possible to selectively inhibit MUC5AC production without impairing airway function. The precise roles of mucin hypersecretion in asthma symptoms such as dyspnea and cough and in physiologic phenomena such as airway hyperresponsiveness remain to be defined.Current opinion in pulmonary medicine 02/2009; 15(1):4-11. · 3.12 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Bronchiolar epithelium is postulated to play a critical role in the orchestration of responses to inhaled allergens, and may contribute to the pathogenesis of asthma. Using a murine model of allergic airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness, we demonstrate in mice sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA) that following a single challenge with nebulized OVA, a rapid and protracted activation of inhibitor of kappa B kinase (IKK) occurred in lung tissue. IKK activation was followed by nuclear localization of nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB within the bronchiolar epithelium and increased luciferase activity in lungs of mice containing a NF-kappaB-dependent reporter gene. Challenge of sensitized mice with OVA also induced mRNA expression of the chemokines, macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) and eotaxin in lung tissue, which corresponded temporally with the observed influx of neutrophils and eosinophils, respectively, into the airspaces. Using laser capture microdissection and quantitative polymerase chain reaction, we demonstrated that MIP-2 and eotaxin were predominantly expressed in bronchiolar epithelium, in contrast to distal regions of the lungs, which expressed lower or undetectable levels of these mRNAs. These studies strengthen the potential importance of the bronchiolar epithelial cell as a source of production of NF-kappaB-dependent mediators that play a role in asthma.American Journal Of Pathology 05/2002; 160(4):1325-34. · 4.52 Impact Factor