Apelin-13 increases myocardial progenitor cells and improves repair postmyocardial infarction

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, Mississippi.
AJP Heart and Circulatory Physiology (Impact Factor: 3.84). 06/2012; 303(5):H605-18. DOI: 10.1152/ajpheart.00366.2012
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Apelin is an endogenous ligand for the angiotensin-like 1 receptor (APJ) and has beneficial effects against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. Little is known about the role of apelin in the homing of vascular progenitor cells (PCs) and cardiac functional recovery postmyocardial infarction (post-MI). The present study investigated whether apelin affects PC homing to the infarcted myocardium, thereby mediating repair and functional recovery post-MI. Mice were infarcted by coronary artery ligation, and apelin-13 (1 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) was injected for 3 days before MI and for 14 days post-MI. Homing of vascular PCs [CD133(+)/c-Kit(+)/Sca1(+), CD133(+)/stromal cell-derived factor (SDF)-1α(+), and CD133(+)/CXC chemokine receptor (CXCR)-4(+)] into the ischemic area was examined. Myocardial Akt, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), VEGF, jagged1, notch3, SDF-1α, and CXCR-4 expression were assessed at 24 h and 14 days post-MI. Functional analyses were performed on day 14 post-MI. Mice that received apelin-13 treatment demonstrated upregulation of SDF-1α/CXCR-4 expression and dramatically increased the number of CD133(+)/c-Kit(+)/Sca1(+), CD133(+)/SDF-1α(+), and c-Kit(+)/CXCR-4(+) cells in infarcted hearts. Apelin-13 also significantly increased Akt and eNOS phosphorylation and upregulated VEGF, jagged1, and notch3 expression in ischemic hearts. This was accompanied by a significant reduction of myocardial apoptosis. Furthermore, treatment with apelin-13 promoted myocardial angiogenesis and attenuated cardiac fibrosis and hypertrophy together with a significant improvement of cardiac function at 14 days post-MI. Apelin-13 increases angiogenesis and improves cardiac repair post-MI by a mechanism involving the upregulation of SDF-1α/CXCR-4 and homing of vascular PCs.

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    • "BM–derived EPC were obtained by flushing the tibias and femurs with 10% FBS EGM. EPC was isolated and cultured from femur and tibia bone marrow of WT and Sirt3KO mice as described previously [22], [23]. Two EPC markers, IB4 (1∶50 dilute) and CD34 (1∶200 dilute), were used for EPC identification by immunohistochemistry. Deficiency of Sirt3 in the EPCs was verified by western blot analysis. "
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    ABSTRACT: Sirtuin-3 (Sirt3) has a critical role in the regulation of human aging and reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. A recent study has identified Sirt3 as an essential regulator of stem cell aging. This study investigated whether Sirt3 is necessary for bone marrow cell (BMC)-mediated cardiac repair in post-myocardial infarction (MI). In vitro, BMC-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) from wild type (WT) and Sirt3KO mice were cultured. EPC angiogenesis, ROS formation and apoptosis were assessed. In vivo, WT and Sirt3 KO mice were subjected to MI and BMCs from WT and Sirt3 KO mice were injected into ischemic area immediately. The expression of VEGF and VEGFR2 was reduced in Sirt3KO-EPCs. Angiogenic capacities and colony formation were significantly impaired in Sirt3KO-EPCs compared to WT-EPCs. Loss of Sirt3 further enhanced ROS formation and apoptosis in EPCs. Overexpression of Sirt3 or treatment with NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin (Apo, 200 and 400 microM) rescued these abnormalities. In post-MI mice, BMC treatment increased number of Sca1+/c-kit+ cells; enhanced VEGF expression and angiogenesis whereas Sirt3KO-BMC treatment had little effects. BMC treatment also attenuated NADPH oxidase subunits p47phox and gp91phox expression, and significantly reduced ROS formation, apoptosis, fibrosis and hypertrophy in post-MI mice. Sirt3KO-BMC treatment did not display these beneficial effects. In contrast, Sirt3KO mice treated with BMCs from WT mice attenuated myocardial apoptosis, fibrosis and improved cardiac function. Our data demonstrate that Sirt3 is essential for BMC therapy; and loss of Sirt3 limits BMC-mediated angiogenesis and cardiac repair in post-MI.
    PLoS ONE 09/2014; 9(9):e107011. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0107011 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "Sca1 and c-kit were visualized using FITC labeled goat anti-mouse IgG antibodies; APJ was visualized with Fluorolink™ Cy™3 labeled goat anti-mouse IgG antibodies. Myocardial APJ+/Sca1+ and c-kit+/APJ+ cells in the injected area were assessed by counting the number of positive cells per 100 nuclei [15], [24]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Our previous study shows that treatment with apelin increases bone marrow cells (BMCs) recruitment and promotes cardiac repair after myocardial infarction (MI). The objective of this study was to investigate whether overexpression of apelin in BMCs improved cell therapy and accelerated cardiac repair and functional recovery in post-MI mice. Mouse myocardial infarction was achieved by coronary artery ligation and BMCs overexpressing apelin (apelin-BMCs) or GFP (GFP-BMCs) were injected into ischemic area immediately after surgery. In vitro, exposure of cultured BMCs to apelin led to a gradual increase in SDF-1á and CXCR4 expression. Intramyocardial delivery of apelin-BMCs in post-MI mice resulted in a significant increase number of APJ(+)/c-kit(+)/Sca1(+) cells in the injected area compared to GFP-BMCs treated post-MI mice. Treatment with apelin-BMCs increased expression of VEGF, Ang-1 and Tie-2 in post-MI mice. Apelin-BMCs treatment also significantly increased angiogenesis and attenuated cardiac fibrosis formation in post-MI mice. Most importantly, treatment with apelin-BMCs significantly improved left ventricular (LV) systolic function in post-MI mice. Mechanistically, Apelin-BMCs treatment led to a significant increase in Sirtuin3 (Sirt3) expression and reduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. Treatment of cultured BMCs with apelin also increased Notch3 expression and Akt phosphorylation. Apelin treatment further attenuated stress-induced apoptosis whereas knockout of Sirt3 abolished anti-apoptotic effect of apelin in cultured BMCs. Moreover, knockout of Sirt3 significantly attenuated apelin-BMCs-induced VEGF expression and angiogenesis in post-MI mice. Knockout of Sirt3 further blunted apelin-BMCs-mediated improvement of cardiac repair and systolic functional recovery in post-MI mice. These data suggest that apelin improves BMCs therapy on cardiac repair and systolic function in post-MI mice. Upregulation of Sirt3 may contribute to the protective effect of apelin-BMCs therapy.
    PLoS ONE 09/2013; 8(9):e71041. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0071041 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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