Phase I study of sorafenib in combination with docetaxel and prednisone in chemo-naïve patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer.
ABSTRACT We performed a dose-escalation study to investigate the safety of sorafenib in combination with docetaxel and prednisone in chemo-naïve patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC).
Six patients were included per dose level. Following docetaxel infusion on day 1 (75 mg/m(2)/q3 weeks), sorafenib was administered at 200 mg BID on days 2-19 (dose level 1), at 200 mg BID on days 1-21 (dose level 2), at 400 mg BID on days 2-19 (dose level 3), at 400 mg BID on days 1-21 (dose level 4). Maximal tolerated dose (MTD) was exceeded if ≥2 patients experienced dose-limiting toxicities (DLT) during cycle 1. The recommended phase 2 dose for sorafenib was defined as one dose level below MTD. If MTD was not reached, the highest feasible dose would be selected to treat an expanded cohort to confirm safety.
Two DLTs were observed during sorafenib dose-escalation consisting of grade 4 febrile neutropenia (dose level 2) and grade 3 hand-foot syndrome (HFS) (dose level 3). Our pharmacokinetic results showed an increased exposure to docetaxel across all dose levels during sorafenib comedication. The main grade ≥3 toxicities were neutropenia (35 %), HFS (27 %), and febrile neutropenia (19 %). The prostate-specific antigen (PSA) response rate was 74 %. Median overall survival was 25.2 months.
Three-weekly docetaxel and prednisone could be combined with sorafenib at 400 mg BID on days 1-21 without reaching MTD. However, we observed a pharmacokinetic interaction between sorafenib and docetaxel, associated with significant toxicities, raising concerns about the safety of this combination in mCRPC.
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ABSTRACT: The multi-kinase inhibitor sorafenib is used for the treatment of renal and hepatic carcinomas and is undergoing evaluation for treatment of breast cancer in combination with other agents. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 converts sorafenib to multiple metabolites that have been detected in patient plasma. However, recent clinical findings suggest that combination therapy may elicit inhibitory pharmacokinetic interactions involving sorafenib that increase toxicity. While sorafenib N-oxide is an active metabolite, information on the anti-tumor actions of other metabolites is unavailable. The present study evaluated the actions of sorafenib and its five major metabolites in human breast cancer cell lines. All agents, with the exception of N'-hydroxymethylsorafenib N-oxide, decreased ATP formation in four breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468, MCF-7 and T-47D). Prolonged treatment of MDA-MB-231 cells with N'-desmethylsorafenib, N'-desmethylsorafenib N-oxide and sorafenib (10μM, 72h) produced small increases in caspase-3 activity to 128-139% of control. Sorafenib and its metabolites, again with the exception of N'-hydroxymethylsorafenib N-oxide, impaired MEK/ERK signaling in MDA-MB-231 cells and modulated the expression of cyclin D1 and myeloid cell leukemia sequence-1, which regulate cell viability. When coadministered with doxorubicin (0.5 or 1μM), sorafenib and N'-desmethylsorafenib (25μM) produced greater effects on ATP production than either treatment alone. Thus, it emerges that, by targeting the MEK/ERK pathway, multiple sorafenib metabolites may contribute to the actions of sorafenib in breast cancer. Because N'-desmethylsorafenib is not extensively metabolized and does not inhibit major hepatic CYPs, this metabolite may have a lower propensity to precipitate pharmacokinetic drug interactions than sorafenib.Biochemical pharmacology 05/2013; · 4.25 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Sorafenib promotes apoptosis through downstream pathways that can be deregulated in CRPC. We hypothesized that sorafenib could overcome chemotherapy resistance in CRPC. Eligible patients were those whose disease had progressed during chemotherapy (docetaxel or mitoxantrone) or within 12 weeks of stopping either. Patients then continued or resumed their last chemotherapy regimen with the addition of sorafenib 400 mg twice daily. Patients received a maximum of 6 cycles of chemotherapy/sorafenib followed by sorafenib alone until disease progression. The primary end point was combination safety. Secondary end points were overall response, percentage of SD, and time to progression (TTP). Twenty-two patients (21 evaluable) were enrolled (16 patients with Gleason score ≥ 7). Median age was 68 years (range, 59-83 years). Median prostate-specific antigen (PSA) was 142 ng/dL (range, 13.6-9584). Visceral and bone disease were present combined in 9 patients (41%). Ten patients (47.6%) showed biochemical response (19% with > 50% PSA decline) and 16 patients (76%) achieved radiographic stability (according to Response Evaluation Criteria for Solid Tumors) after starting sorafenib for a median duration of 6 months (range, 4-12 months). Grade 3/4 nonhematologic toxicities were fatigue (n = 7, 32%), palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia (n = 4, 18%). Dose reduction of sorafenib occurred at least once in 15 patients (68%) because of palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia (22%) and fatigue (22%). With a median follow-up of 19 months (range, 3-46 months), median overall survival was 8 months. TTP according to PSA level was 3 months and TTP according to imaging studies and/or clinically was 6 months. Median number of treatment cycles given was 6 (range, 1-10). Sorafenib can be combined safely with chemotherapy and in some patients overcomes chemotherapy resistance.Clinical Genitourinary Cancer 09/2013; · 1.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: After many years of limited treatment options for patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC), multiple systemic therapies are now available, providing patients with significant improvements in survival, symptom control and bone health. Most of the recent advances in this area have been based on better understanding of mCRPC biology, particularly with respect to the key role of androgen receptor signalling. However, most therapies are targeted towards the malignant epithelial cell component of the cancer and it should not be forgotten that cancer cells exist in close and symbiotic relationships with other components of the tumour. Paracrine and stromal signals are often critical to the growth of the cancer and represent new potential therapeutic targets that are separate from the malignant epithelial cells. The stroma produces numerous growth factors, including vascular endothelial growth factor family members, platelet-derived growth factors and fibroblast growth factors, which are all critical for tumour growth. Targeting prostate-cancer-associated fibroblasts in order to destroy the physical and functional scaffold of a cancer is also a logical approach. The interaction between prostate cancer and the immune system remains an active topic of basic and clinical research, with cytokines, chemokines and growth factors being potential targets for therapy. The biology of epithelial-mesenchymal transition and of circulating tumour cells might also provide insight into new therapeutic targets.Nature Reviews Urology 07/2013; · 4.79 Impact Factor