Article

Toxoplasma gondii Infection and Self-directed Violence in MothersToxoplasma Gondii and Self-directed Violence.

Archives of general psychiatry (Impact Factor: 13.75). 07/2012; 69(11):1-8. DOI: 10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2012.668
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT CONTEXT Two studies based on clinical samples have found an association between Toxoplasma gondii infection and history of suicide attempt. To our knowledge, these findings have never been replicated in a prospective cohort study. OBJECTIVE To examine whether T gondii-infected mothers have an increased risk of self-directed violence, violent suicide attempts, and suicide and whether the risk depends on the level of T gondii IgG antibodies. DESIGN Register-based prospective cohort study. Women were followed up from the date of delivery, 1992 to 1995 until 2006. SETTING Denmark. PARTICIPANTS A cohort of 45 788 women born in Denmark whose level of Toxoplasma-specific IgG antibodies was measured in connection with child birth between 1992 and 1995. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Incidence rates of self-directed violence, violent suicide attempts, and suicide in relation to T gondii seropositivity and serointensity. RESULTS T gondii-infected mothers had a relative risk of self-directed violence of 1.53 (95% CI, 1.27-1.85) compared with noninfected mothers, and the risk seemed to increase with increasing IgG antibody level. For violent suicide attempts, the relative risk was 1.81 (95% CI, 1.13-2.84) and for suicide, 2.05 (95% CI, 0.78-5.20). A similar association was found for repetition of self-directed violence, with a relative risk of 1.54 (95% CI, 0.98-2.39). CONCLUSION Women with a T gondii infection have an increased risk of self-directed violence.

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    • "Though previously considered harmless in immune-competent adults, latent toxoplasmosis has recently been associated with suicidal self-directed violence (SSDV), although the mechanisms underlying this association are not fully understood (Arling et al., 2009; Ling et al., 2011; Okusaga et al., 2011; Pedersen et al., 2012; Postolache and Cook, 2013; Yagmur et al., 2010; Zhang et al., 2012b). Sub-clinical personality traits, (Fekadu et al., 2010; Flegr and Havlicek, 1999; Flegr and Hrdy, 1994; Flegr et al., 2000; Flegr et al., 1996; Lindova et al., 2010, 2006) subtle neurological deficits , (Havlicek et al., 2001) and risk of motor vehicle accidents (Flegr et al., 2002; Kocazeybek et al., 2009; Yereli et al., 2006) have been previously reported in association with latent T. gondii infection. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Latent chronic infection with Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii), a common neurotropic pathogen, has been previously linked with suicidal self-directed violence (SSDV). We sought to determine if latent infection with T gondii is associated with trait aggression and impulsivity, intermediate phenotypes for suicidal behavior, in psychiatrically healthy adults. Methods: Traits of aggression and impulsivity were analyzed in relationship to IgG antibody seropositivity for T gondii and two other latent neurotropic infections, herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV1) and cytomegalovirus (CMV). One thousand community-residing adults residing in the Munich metropolitan area with no Axis I or II conditions by SCID for DSM-IV (510 men, 490 women, mean age 53.6 +/- 15.8, range 20-74). Plasma samples were tested for IgG antibodies to T. gondii, HSV-1 and CMV by ELISA. Self-reported ratings of trait aggression scores (Questionnaire for Measuring Factors of Aggression [FAF]) and trait impulsivity (Sensation-Seeking Scale-V [SSS-V]) were analyzed using linear multivariate methods. Results: T gondii IgG seropositivity was significantly associated with higher trait reactive aggression scores among women (p < .01), but not among men. T. gondii-positivity was also associated with higher impulsive sensation-seeking (SSS-V Disinhibition) among younger men (p < .01) aged 20-59 years old (median age = 60). All associations with HSV-1 and CMV were not significant. Conclusions: Aggression and impulsivity, personality traits considered as endophenotypes for SSDV, are associated with latent T gondii infection in a gender and age-specific manner, and could be further investigated as prognostic and treatment targets in 7: gondii-positive individuals at risk for SSDV. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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    • "Toxoplasma infection may evolve brain dopamine dysregulation (Torrey et al., 2007; Fekadu et al., 2010). Longitudinal and cross-sectional trials in seropositive females with chronic toxoplasmosis have shown high risk of self-harm, accidents and non-fatal suicidal aggression than in seronegative individuals (Pedersen et al., 2012; Zhang et al., 2012). "
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    Frontiers in Microbiology 07/2014; 5:385. DOI:10.3389/fmicb.2014.00385 · 3.94 Impact Factor
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    • "Although toxoplasmosis is considered to usually have subclinical effects on humans, it was found to be associated with altered behavior in humans and rodents [31,32]. In particular the presence of Toxoplasma gondii was linked to suicidal self-directed violence [33] and increased suicide rates in women [34]. Latent toxoplasmosis was found to be associated with increased risk of traffic accidents [35] and with the perception of pleasantness of cat urine odor in a gender-dependent manner in humans [36]. "
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