Autophagy in intra-hepatic cholangiocarcinoma.
ABSTRACT Intra-hepatic cholangiocarcinoma (IHCC) is a primary cancer of the liver that shares histological features with the hepatic bile ducts from which it is thought to arise. The incidence of this disease is increasing, possibly related to increased inflammatory liver diseases such as viral hepatitis and steatohepatitis (commonly called "fatty liver"), induced by obesity, diabetes, and other metabolic derangements. Its prognosis is generally poor with early metastasis and presently there are limited effective treatments. A basic understanding of the disease has long been hampered by limited tumor cell lines and good model systems. Similarly, such limitations have obstructed new therapeutic inroads.