Deactivation of hepatic stellate cells during liver fibrosis resolution in mice.
ABSTRACT Activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), the main fibrogenic cell type in the liver, undergo apoptosis after cessation of liver injury, which contributes to resolution of fibrosis. In this study, we investigated whether HSC deactivation constitutes an additional mechanism of liver fibrosis resolution.
HSC activation and deactivation were investigated by single-cell PCR and genetic tracking in transgenic mice that expressed a tamoxifen-inducible CreER under control of the endogenous vimentin promoter (Vimentin-CreER).
Single-cell quantitative polymerase chain reaction demonstrated activation of almost the entire HSC population in fibrotic livers, and a gradual decrease of HSC activation during fibrosis resolution, indicating deactivation of HSCs. Vimentin-CreER marked activated HSCs, demonstrated by a 6- to 16-fold induction of a membrane-bound green fluorescent protein (mGFP) Cre-reporter after injection of carbon tetrachloride, in liver and isolated HSCs, and a shift in localization of mGFP-marked HSCs from peri-sinusoidal to fibrotic septa. Tracking of mGFP-positive HSCs revealed the persistence of 40%-45% of mGFP expression in livers and isolated HSCs 30-45 days after carbon tetrachloride was no longer administered, despite normalization of fibrogenesis parameters; these findings confirm reversal of HSC activation. After fibrosis resolution, mGFP expression was observed again in desmin-positive peri-sinusoidal HSCs; no mGFP expression was detected in hepatocytes or cholangiocytes, excluding mesenchymal-epithelial transition. Notably, reverted HSCs remained in a primed state, with higher levels of responsiveness to fibrogenic stimuli.
In mice, reversal of HSC activation contributes to termination of fibrogenesis during fibrosis resolution, but results in higher responsiveness of reverted HSCs to recurring fibrogenic stimulation.
- SourceAvailable from: PubMed Central[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Liver cirrhosis, a late stage of hepatic fibrosis, is an increasing cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Hepatic fibrosis is mainly caused by alcoholic or non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, chronic viral hepatitis, or autoimmune and biliary diseases. Myofibroblasts, which are absent from the normal liver, are differentiated from heterogeneous cell populations in response to a liver injury of any etiology and produce the extracellular matrix. Hepatic stellate cells are considered the main source of myofibroblasts. However, the origin of hepatic myofibroblasts remains unresolved, and despite considerable research, only a limited success has been achieved by existing anti-fibrotic therapies. The question remains whether these limitations are caused by lack of attention to the critical targets, the myofibroblasts derived from cells of other mesenchymal origins. Therefore, identifying the origin of myofibroblasts may provide insight into the mechanisms underlying liver fibrosis, and may lead to the development of more effective therapies. This review will examine our current strategies for detecting hepatic myofibroblasts of different origins.Current pathobiology reports. 01/2014; 2(4):209-215.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Anti-inflammation via inhibition of NF-κB pathways in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is one therapeutic approach to hepatic fibrosis. Tanshinone IIA (C19H18O3, Tan IIA) is a lipophilic diterpene isolated from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, with reported anti-inflammatory activity. We tested whether Tan IIA could inhibit HSC activation.PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(7):e103229. · 3.53 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Liver fibrosis results from dysregulation of normal wound healing, inflammation, activation of myofibroblasts, and deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM). Chronic liver injury causes death of hepatocytes and formation of apoptotic bodies, which in turn, release factors that recruit inflammatory cells (neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages, and lymphocytes) to the injured liver. Hepatic macrophages (Kupffer cells) produce TGFβ1 and other inflammatory cytokines that activate Collagen Type I producing myofibroblasts, which are not present in the normal liver. Secretion of TGFβ1 and activation of myofibroblasts play a critical role in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis of different etiologies. Although the composition of fibrogenic myofibroblasts varies dependent on etiology of liver injury, liver resident hepatic stellate cells and portal fibroblasts are the major source of myofibroblasts in fibrotic liver in both experimental models of liver fibrosis and in patients with liver disease. Several studies have demonstrated that hepatic fibrosis can reverse upon cessation of liver injury. Regression of liver fibrosis is accompanied by the disappearance of fibrogenic myofibroblasts followed by resorption of the fibrous scar. Myofibroblasts either apoptose or inactivate into a quiescent-like state (e.g., stop collagen production and partially restore expression of lipogenic genes). Resolution of liver fibrosis is associated with recruitment of macrophages that secrete matrix-degrading enzymes (matrix metalloproteinase, collagenases) and are responsible for fibrosis resolution. However, prolonged/repeated liver injury may cause irreversible crosslinking of ECM and formation of uncleavable collagen fibers. Advanced fibrosis progresses to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The current review will summarize the role and contribution of different cell types to populations of fibrogenic myofibroblasts in fibrotic liver.Frontiers in Pharmacology 01/2014; 5:167.