Tanshinone IIA reduces apoptosis induced by hydrogen peroxide in the human endothelium-derived EA.hy926 cells.
ABSTRACT Salvia Miltiorrhiza Bunge (also known as herb Danshen in Chinese) is a widely used Chinese herbal medicine. Tanshinone IIA (TSN IIA) is considered to be the most important bioactive ingredient in Danshen and exhibits an anti-atherosclerotic activity.
To evaluate the protective effect of TSN IIA on the human endothelial EA.hy926 cells injured by hydrogen peroxide in vitro and its possible mechanism.
The EA.hy926 cells were incubated for 24h with different concentrations of TSN IIA (5, 10 and 20 μg/μL ) or DMEM. Subsequently, cells were treated with 300 μmol/L H(2)O(2) for another 4h. Then, the percentage of cell viability was evaluated by 3-(4, 5-di-methylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The apoptosis of EA.hy926 cells was detected by flow cytometry with AnnexinV-FITC/PI double staining and laser scanning spectral confocal technique. The generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was analyzed by flow cytometry. The mRNA expressions of caspase-3, Bcl-2 and Bax were tested by real time-reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (real time RT-PCR). The protein expression of Bcl-2 and Bax was determined by Western blotting. MDA levels, NO production, LDH leakage, and SOD as well as caspase-3 activities were also measured using standard methods.
Loss of cell viability and excessive cell apoptosis were observed in EA.hy926 cells after 4h of challenge with H(2)O(2) (300 μmol/L). However, cell apoptosis was attenuated in different concentrations of TSN IIA (5, 10 and 20 μg/μL) pretreated cells. Furthermore, TSN IIA markedly inhibited the elevation of ROS evoked by H(2)O(2). Real time RT-PCR and Western blotting analysis showed that TSN IIA significantly decreased the expressions of pro-apoptotic proteins (Bax and caspase-3) while significantly increased the expression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2, and resulted in obvious reduction of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio in EA.hy926 cells induced by H(2)O(2).
These observations provide preliminary evidence that TSN IIA protects EA.hy926 cells against H(2)O(2) damage, which is mainly associated with the ROS generation, followed by the imbalance of the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, and caspase-3 activation leading to apoptosis.
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ABSTRACT: Vascular endothelium plays an important role in the physiological homeostasis of blood vessels. Endothelial injury is considered to be implicated in the pathogenesis of many cardiovascular diseases, including atherosclerosis. Farrerol, a flavonoid considered to be the major bioactive component in a traditional Chinese herb, "Man-shan-hong", which is the dried leaves of Rhododendron dauricum L., displays many bioactive properties, including antibechic, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and the inhibition of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation. In this study, the protective effects of farrerol on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced apoptosis in human endothelium-derived EA.hy926 cells were investigated. The results showed that farrerol significantly inhibited the loss of cell viability and enhanced superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities in H2O2-induced EA.hy926 cells. Meanwhile, farrerol inhibited H2O2-induced elevation in the levels of intracellular malondialdehyde and reactive oxygen species, as well as cell apoptosis. Furthermore, real time RT-PCR and Western blot analysis showed that farrerol significantly decreased the expression of Bax mRNA, Bax, cleaved caspase-3, and phosph-p38 MAPK, while increasing the exporession of Bcl-2 mRNA and Bcl-2 in H2O2-induced EA.hy926 cells. These results are the first demonstration that farrerol has protective effects against H2O2-induced apoptosis in EA.hy926 cells, and suggests that farrerol is a potential candidate for the intervention of endothelial-injury-associated cardiovascular diseases.Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 09/2013; 91(9):733-40. · 1.56 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced cardiac myocyte injury resulting from changes in the expression levels of multiple genes plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of numerous heart diseases. The purpose of this study was to determine the potential roles of microRNA-214 (miR-214) in hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 )-mediated gene regulation in cardiac myocytes. In this study, we used quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) to demonstrate that miR-214 was upregulated in cardiac myocytes after treatment with H2 O2 . We transfected cells with pre-miR-214 to upregulate miR-214 expression and transfected cells with a miR-214 inhibitor (anti-miR-214) to downregulate miR-214 expression. H2 O2 -induced cardiac cell apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry. The level of apoptosis was increased by the miR-214 inhibitor and decreased by pre-miR-214. Therefore, we believe that miR-214 plays a positive role in H2 O2 -induced cardiac cell apoptosis. Phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) is constitutively active and is considered to be the primary downregulator of the pro-oncogenic PI3K/Akt pathway. Western blot analysis revealed that the expression of the PTEN protein in cardiac myocytes decreased after H2 O2 induction. Anti-miR-214 increased PTEN protein expression level, in contrast, pre-miR-214 decreased the PTEN protein expression level in cultured cardiac myocytes. These results indicate that PTEN is regulated by miR-214 and serves as an importent target of miR-214 in cardiac myocytes. In conclusion, miR-214 is sensitive to H2 O2 stimulation, and miR-214 protects cardiac myocytes against H2 O2 -induced injury via one of its targets, PTEN. J. Cell. Biochem. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 07/2013; · 3.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Lanthanide-doped sodium yttrium fluoride (NaYF4) nanoparticles exhibit novel optical properties which make them be widely used in various fields. The extensive applications increase the chance of human exposure to these nanoparticles and thus raise deep concerns regarding their riskiness. In the present study, we have synthesized europium doped NaYF4 (NaYF4:Eu(3+)) nanoparticles with three diameters and used endothelial cells (ECs) as a cell model to explore the potential toxic effect. The cell viability, cytomembrane integrity, cellular uptake, intracellular localization, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), apoptosis detection, caspase-3 activity and expression of inflammatory gene were studied. The results indicated that these nanoparticles could be uptaken into ECs and decrease the cell viability, induce the intracellular lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, increase the ROS level, and decrease the cell MMP in a size-dependent manner. Besides that, the cells were suffered to apoptosis with the caspase-3 activation, and the inflammation specific gene expressions (ICAM1 and VCAM1) were also increased. Our results suggest that the damage pathway may be related to the ROS generation and mitochondrial damage. The results provide novel evidence to elucidate their toxicity mechanisms and may be helpful for more rational applications of these compounds in the future.Materials Science and Engineering: C. 01/2014; 43:330–342.