Health-Related Quality of Life ‘Well-Being' in HIV Distal Neuropathic Pain is More Strongly Associated with Depression Severity than with Pain Intensity

Department of Psychiatry, University of California-San Diego, San Diego, CA 92117, USA.
Psychosomatics (Impact Factor: 1.86). 07/2012; 53(4):380-6. DOI: 10.1016/j.psym.2012.05.002
Source: PubMed


Despite modern antiretroviral treatment, HIV-associated distal neuropathic pain (DNP) remains one of the most prevalent and debilitating complications of HIV disease. Neuropathic pain is often accompanied by depressed mood, and both pain and depression have been associated with decreased health-related quality of life (HRQOL) well-being. The relative contribution of depression and pain to worse life quality has not been addressed, however, even though a better understanding might sharpen intervention strategies.
We used the Medical Outcomes Study HIV (MOS-HIV) Health Survey and the Beck depression inventory-II and linear regression models to investigate HRQOL well-being in HIV-infected patients with DNP (n = 397) participating in an observational cohort study at six U.S. sites (CNS HIV Antiretroviral Treatment Effects Research Study, CHARTER).
For this sample of patients with HIV DNP, severity of depressed mood was more highly correlated with HRQOL well-being than was pain intensity.
These results suggest that interventions to improve HRQOL well-being in individuals with HIV-associated DNP may need to address not only pain intensity but mood state as well.

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    • "In addition, increased tolerability of ART [2], reduced pill burden and dosing frequency have been positive influences on health- related quality of life (HRQL) facilitated by medication adherence [3]. However, many PLWH who survived the early era of combination therapy experience residual disabling effects of the drugs such as: lipodystrophy [4], neuropathy [5], and persistent immunosuppression [6], which can impair quality of life. Comorbidities such as hepatitis C may add an additional physical and psychological burden [7-9]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background The health-related quality of life (HRQL) of people living with HIV infection is an important consideration in HIV management. The PROQOL-HIV psychometric instrument was recently developed internationally as a contemporary, discriminating HIV-HRQL measure incorporating influential emotional dimensions such as stigma. Here we present the first within-country results of PROQOL-HIV using qualitative and quantitative data collected from a West Australian cohort who participated in the development and validation of PROQOL-HIV, and provide a comprehensive picture of HRQL in our setting. Methods We carried out a secondary analysis of data from Australian patients who participated in the international study: 15 in-depth interviews were conducted and 102 HRQL surveys using the PROQOL-HIV instrument and a symptom questionnaire were administered. We employed qualitative methods to extract description from the interview data and linear regression for exploration of the composite and sub-scale scores derived from the survey. Results Interviews revealed the long-standing difficulties of living with HIV, particularly in the domains of intimate relationships, perceived stigma, and chronic ill health. The novel PROQOL-HIV instrument discriminated impact of treatment via symptomatology, pill burden and treatment duration. Patients demonstrated lower HRQL if they were: newly diagnosed (p=0.001); naive to anti-retroviral treatment (p=0.009); reporting depression, unemployment or a high frequency of adverse symptoms, (all p<0.001). Total HRQL was notably reduced by perceived stigma with a third of surveyed patients reporting persistent fears of both disclosing their HIV status and infecting others. Conclusions The analysis showed that psychological distress was a major influence on HRQL in our cohort. This was compounded in people with poor physical health which in turn was associated with unemployment and depression. People with HIV infection are living longer and residual side effects of the earlier regimens complicate current clinical management and affect their quality of life. However, even for the newly diagnosed exposed to less toxic regimens, HIV-related stigma exerts negative social and psychological effects. It is evident that context-specific interventions are required to address persistent distress related to stigma, reframe personal and public perceptions of HIV infection and ameliorate its disabling social and psychological effects.
    Health and Quality of Life Outcomes 04/2013; 11(1):56. DOI:10.1186/1477-7525-11-56 · 2.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Peripheral nerve disorders are associated with all stages of HIV infection. Distal sensory polyneuropathy is characterised by often-disabling pain that is difficult to treat. It is prevalent in both high-income and low-income settings. In low-income settings, use of potentially neurotoxic antiretrovirals, which are inexpensive and widely available, contributes substantially to incidence. Research has focused on identification of factors that predict risk of distal sensory polyneuropathy and elucidation of the multifactorial mechanisms behind pathogenesis. Sensorimotor polyneuropathies and polyradiculopathies are less frequent than distal sensory polyneuropathy, but still occur in low-income settings and have potentially devastating consequences. However, many of these diseases can be treated successfully with a combination of antiretroviral and immune-modulating therapies. To distinguish between peripheral nerve disorders that have diverse, overlapping, and frequently atypical presentations can be challenging; a framework based on a clinicoanatomical approach might assist in the diagnosis and management of such disorders.
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    ABSTRACT: Despite modern antiretroviral therapy, HIV-associated sensory neuropathy affects over 50 % of HIV patients. The clinical expression of HIV neuropathy is highly variable: many individuals report few symptoms, but about half report distal neuropathic pain (DNP), making it one of the most prevalent, disabling, and treatment-resistant complications of HIV disease. The presence and intensity of pain is not fully explained by the degree of peripheral nerve damage, making it unclear why some patients do, and others do not, report pain. To better understand central nervous system contributions to HIV DNP, we performed a cross-sectional analysis of structural magnetic resonance imaging volumes in 241 HIV-infected participants from an observational multi-site cohort study at five US sites (CNS HIV Anti-Retroviral Treatment Effects Research Study, CHARTER). The association between DNP and the structural imaging outcomes was investigated using both linear and nonlinear (Gaussian Kernel support vector) multivariable regression, controlling for key demographic and clinical variables. Severity of DNP symptoms was correlated with smaller total cerebral cortical gray matter volume (r = -0.24; p = 0.004). Understanding the mechanisms for this association between smaller total cortical volumes and DNP may provide insight into HIV DNP chronicity and treatment-resistance.
    Journal of NeuroVirology 06/2014; 20(3). DOI:10.1007/s13365-014-0236-8 · 2.60 Impact Factor
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