Phosphoregulation of STIM1 Leads to Exclusion of the Endoplasmic Reticulum from the Mitotic Spindle
ABSTRACT The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) undergoes significant reorganization between interphase and mitosis, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) is an ER Ca(2+) sensor that activates store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) and also functions in ER morphogenesis through its interaction with the microtubule +TIP protein end binding 1 (EB1). We previously demonstrated that phosphorylation of STIM1 during mitosis suppresses SOCE. We now show that STIM1 phosphorylation is a major regulatory mechanism that excludes ER from the mitotic spindle. In mitotic HeLa cells, the ER forms concentric sheets largely excluded from the mitotic spindle. We show that STIM1 dissociates from EB1 in mitosis and localizes to the concentric ER sheets. However, a nonphosphorylatable STIM1 mutant (STIM1(10A)) colocalized extensively with EB1 and drove ER mislocalization by pulling ER tubules into the spindle. This effect was rescued by mutating the EB1 interaction site of STIM1(10A), demonstrating that aberrant association of STIM1(10A) with EB1 is responsible for the ER mislocalization. A STIM1 phosphomimetic exhibited significantly impaired +TIP tracking in interphase but was ineffective at inhibiting SOCE, suggesting different mechanisms of regulation of these two STIM1 functions by phosphorylation. Thus, ER spindle exclusion and ER-dependent Ca(2+) signaling during mitosis require multimodal STIM1 regulation by phosphorylation.
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ABSTRACT: Maintenance of nuclear architecture is crucial for gene regulation, cell proliferation and tissue development. However, during every open mitosis and meiosis, chromosomes are exposed to cytoskeletal forces until they are fully reassembled into mature nuclei. Here we discuss our recent study of nuclear assembly in Xenopus egg extracts, where we showed that the DNA binding protein Developmental pluripotency associated 2 (Dppa2) directly inhibits microtubule polymerization during nuclear formation, and that this is essential for normal nuclear shape and replication. We explore mechanisms by which microtubule dynamics could regulate nuclear formation and morphology, and discuss the importance of both spatial and temporal regulation of microtubules in this process. Moreover, expression of Dppa2 is limited to the early embryo and pluripotent tissues, and we highlight the specific demands of mitosis in these often rapidly dividing cells, in which telophase nuclear assembly must be expedited and may facilitate developmental changes in nuclear architecture.Nucleus (Austin, Texas) 02/2014; 5(1). DOI:10.4161/nucl.28168 · 3.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Signaling through the store-operated Ca(2+) release-activated Ca(2+) (CRAC) channel regulates critical cellular functions, including gene expression, cell growth and differentiation, and Ca(2+) homeostasis. Loss-of-function mutations in the CRAC channel pore-forming protein ORAI1 or the Ca(2+) sensing protein stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) result in severe immune dysfunction and nonprogressive myopathy. Here, we identify gain-of-function mutations in the cytoplasmic domain of STIM1 (p.R304W) associated with thrombocytopenia, bleeding diathesis, miosis, and tubular myopathy in patients with Stormorken syndrome, and in ORAI1 (p.P245L), associated with a Stormorken-like syndrome of congenital miosis and tubular aggregate myopathy but without hematological abnormalities. Heterologous expression of STIM1 p.R304W results in constitutive activation of the CRAC channel in vitro, and spontaneous bleeding accompanied by reduced numbers of thrombocytes in zebrafish embryos, recapitulating key aspects of Stormorken syndrome. p.P245L in ORAI1 does not make a constitutively active CRAC channel, but suppresses the slow Ca(2+)-dependent inactivation of the CRAC channel, thus also functioning as a gain-of-function mutation. These data expand our understanding of the phenotypic spectrum of dysregulated CRAC channel signaling, advance our knowledge of the molecular function of the CRAC channel, and suggest new therapies aiming at attenuating store-operated Ca(2+) entry in the treatment of patients with Stormorken syndrome and related pathologic conditions.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 03/2014; DOI:10.1073/pnas.1312520111 · 9.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: During mitosis, cells comprehensively restructure their interior to promote the faithful inheritance of DNA and cytoplasmic contents. In metazoans, this restructuring entails disassembly of the nuclear envelope, redistribution of its components into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and eventually nuclear envelope reassembly around the segregated chromosomes. The microtubule cytoskeleton has recently emerged as a critical regulator of mitotic nuclear envelope and ER dynamics. Microtubules and associated molecular motors tear open the nuclear envelope in prophase and remove nuclear envelope remnants from chromatin. Additionally, two distinct mechanisms of microtubule-based regulation of ER dynamics operate later in mitosis. First, association of the ER with microtubules is reduced, preventing invasion of ER into the spindle area, and second, organelle membrane is actively cleared from metaphase chromosomes. However, we are only beginning to understand the role of microtubules in shaping and distributing ER and other organelles during mitosis.BioEssays 07/2014; 36(7). DOI:10.1002/bies.201400022 · 4.84 Impact Factor