Caveolin-1 suppresses human immunodeficiency virus-1 replication by inhibiting acetylation of NF-κB.
ABSTRACT Caveolin-1 is an integral membrane protein primarily responsible for the formation of membrane structures known as caveolae. Caveolae are specialized lipid rafts involved in protein trafficking, cholesterol homeostasis, and a number of signaling functions. It has been demonstrated that caveolin-1 suppresses HIV-1 protein expression. We found that co-transfecting cells with HIV-1 and caveolin-1 constructs, results in a marked decrease in the level of HIV-1 transcription relative to cells transfected with HIV-1 DNA alone. Correspondingly, reduction of endogenous caveolin-1 expression by siRNA-mediated silencing resulted in an enhancement of HIV-1 replication. Further, we observed a loss of caveolin-mediated suppression of HIV-1 transcription in promoter studies with reporters containing mutations in the NF-κB binding site. Our analysis of the posttranslational modification status of the p65 subunit of NF-κB demonstrates hypoacetylation of p65 in the presence of caveolin-1. Since hypoacetylated p65 has been shown to inhibit transcription, we conclude that caveolin-1 inhibits HIV-1 transcription through a NF-κB-dependent mechanism.
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ABSTRACT: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities that can predispose an individual to a greater risk of developing type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The cluster includes abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and hyperglycemia - all of which are risk factors to public health. While searching for a link among the aforementioned malaises, clues have been focused on the cell membrane domain caveolae, wherein the MetS-associated active molecules are colocalized and interacted with to carry out designated biological activities. Caveola disarray could induce all of those individual metabolic abnormalities to be present in animal models and humans, providing a new target for therapeutic strategy in the management of MetS.Pathobiology of aging & age related diseases. 01/2014; 4.
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ABSTRACT: Lipid rafts are ordered microdomains within cellular membranes that are rich in cholesterol and sphingolipids. Caveolin (Cav-1) and flotillin (Flt-1) are markers of lipid rafts, which serve as an organizing center for biological phenomena and cellular signaling. Lipid rafts involvement in dengue virus (DENV) processing, replication, and assembly remains poorly characterized. Here, we investigated the role of lipid rafts after DENV endocytosis in human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1). The non-structural viral proteins NS3 and NS2B, but not NS5, were associated with detergent-resistant membranes. In sucrose gradients, both NS3 and NS2B proteins appeared in Cav-1 and Flt-1 rich fractions. Additionally, double immunofluorescence staining of DENV-infected HMEC-1 cells showed that NS3 and NS2B, but not NS5, colocalized with Cav-1 and Flt-1. Furthermore, in HMEC-1cells transfected with NS3 protease, shown a strong overlap between NS3 and Cav-1, similar to that in DENV-infected cells. In contrast, double-stranded viral RNA (dsRNA) overlapped weakly with Cav-1 and Flt-1. Given these results, we investigated whether Cav-1 directly interacted with NS3. Cav-1 and NS3 co-immunoprecipitated, indicating that they resided within the same complex. Furthermore, when cellular cholesterol was depleted by methyl-beta cyclodextrin treatment after DENV entrance, lipid rafts were disrupted, NS3 protein level was reduced, besides Cav-1 and NS3 were displaced to fractions 9 and 10 in sucrose gradient analysis, and we observed a dramatically reduction of DENV particles release. These data demonstrate the essential role of caveolar cholesterol-rich lipid raft microdomains in DENV polyprotein processing and replication during the late stages of the DENV life cycle.PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(3):e90704. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The deciphering of cellular networks to determine susceptibility to infection by HIV or the related simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) is a major challenge in infection biology. Here, we have compared gene expression profiles of a human CD4+ T cell line at 24 h after infection with a cell line of the same origin permanently releasing SIVmac. A new knowledge-based-network approach (Inter-Chain-Finder, ICF) has been used to identify sub-networks associated with cell survival of a chronically SIV-infected T cell line. Notably, the method can identify not only differentially expressed key hub genes but also non-differentially expressed, critical, ‘hidden’ regulators. Six out of the 13 predicted major hidden key regulators were among the landscape of proteins known to interact with HIV. Several sub-networks were dysregulated upon chronic infection with SIV. Most prominently, factors reported to be engaged in early stages of acute viral infection were affected, e.g. entry, integration and provirus transcription and other cellular responses such as apoptosis and proliferation were modulated. For experimental validation of the gene expression analyses and computational predictions, individual pathways/sub-networks and significantly altered key regulators were investigated further. We showed that the expression of caveolin-1 (Cav-1), the top hub in the affected protein-protein interaction network, was significantly upregulated in chronically SIV-infected CD4+ T cells. Cav-1 is the main determinant of caveolae and a central component of several signal transduction pathways. Furthermore, CD4 downregulation and modulation of the expression of alternate and co-receptors as well as pathways associated with viral integration into the genome were also observed in these cells. Putatively, these modifications interfere with re-infection and the early replication cycle and inhibit cell death provoked by syncytia formation and bystander apoptosis. Thus, by using the novel approach for network analysis, ICF, we predict that in the T cell line chronically infected with SIV, cellular processes that are known to be crucial for early phases of HIV /SIV replication are altered and cellular responses that result in cell death are modulated. These modifications presumably contribute to cell survival despite chronic infection.Virology Journal 08/2014; 11:152. · 2.09 Impact Factor