Caveolin-1 suppresses Human Immunodeficiency virus-1 replication by inhibiting acetylation of NF-κB
ABSTRACT Caveolin-1 is an integral membrane protein primarily responsible for the formation of membrane structures known as caveolae. Caveolae are specialized lipid rafts involved in protein trafficking, cholesterol homeostasis, and a number of signaling functions. It has been demonstrated that caveolin-1 suppresses HIV-1 protein expression. We found that co-transfecting cells with HIV-1 and caveolin-1 constructs, results in a marked decrease in the level of HIV-1 transcription relative to cells transfected with HIV-1 DNA alone. Correspondingly, reduction of endogenous caveolin-1 expression by siRNA-mediated silencing resulted in an enhancement of HIV-1 replication. Further, we observed a loss of caveolin-mediated suppression of HIV-1 transcription in promoter studies with reporters containing mutations in the NF-κB binding site. Our analysis of the posttranslational modification status of the p65 subunit of NF-κB demonstrates hypoacetylation of p65 in the presence of caveolin-1. Since hypoacetylated p65 has been shown to inhibit transcription, we conclude that caveolin-1 inhibits HIV-1 transcription through a NF-κB-dependent mechanism.
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ABSTRACT: Senescent endothelial cells (EC) have been identified in cardiovascular disease, in angiogenic tumour associated vessels and in aged individuals. We have previously identified a novel anti-inflammatory senescent phenotype of EC. We show here that caveolae are critical in the induction of this anti-inflammatory senescent state. Senescent EC induced by either the overexpression of ARHGAP18/SENEX or by H2 O2 showed significantly increased numbers of caveolae and associated proteins Caveolin-1, cavin-1 and cavin-2. Depletion of these proteins by RNA interference decreased senescence induced by ARHGAP18 and by H2 O2 . ARHGAP18 overexpression induced a predominantly anti-inflammatory senescent population and depletion of the caveolae-associated proteins resulted in the preferential reduction in this senescent population as measured by neutrophil adhesion and adhesion protein expression after TNFα treatment. In confirmation, EC isolated from the aortas of CAV-1(-/-) mice failed to induce this anti-inflammatory senescent cell population upon expression of ARHGAP18, whereas EC from wild-type mice showed a significant increase. NF-κB is one of the major transcription factors mediating the induction of E-selectin and VCAM-1 expression, adhesion molecules responsible for leucocyte attachment to EC. TNFα-induced activation of NF-κB was suppressed in ARHGAP18-induced senescent EC, and this inhibition was reversed by Caveolin-1 knock-down. Thus, out results demonstrate that an increase in caveolae and its component proteins in senescent ECs is associated with inhibition of the NF-kB signalling pathway and promotion of the anti-inflammatory senescent pathway. © 2014 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.Aging Cell 11/2014; 14(1). DOI:10.1111/acel.12270 · 5.94 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities that can predispose an individual to a greater risk of developing type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The cluster includes abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and hyperglycemia - all of which are risk factors to public health. While searching for a link among the aforementioned malaises, clues have been focused on the cell membrane domain caveolae, wherein the MetS-associated active molecules are colocalized and interacted with to carry out designated biological activities. Caveola disarray could induce all of those individual metabolic abnormalities to be present in animal models and humans, providing a new target for therapeutic strategy in the management of MetS.02/2014; 4. DOI:10.3402/pba.v4.23866
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ABSTRACT: Lipid rafts are ordered microdomains within cellular membranes that are rich in cholesterol and sphingolipids. Caveolin (Cav-1) and flotillin (Flt-1) are markers of lipid rafts, which serve as an organizing center for biological phenomena and cellular signaling. Lipid rafts involvement in dengue virus (DENV) processing, replication, and assembly remains poorly characterized. Here, we investigated the role of lipid rafts after DENV endocytosis in human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1). The non-structural viral proteins NS3 and NS2B, but not NS5, were associated with detergent-resistant membranes. In sucrose gradients, both NS3 and NS2B proteins appeared in Cav-1 and Flt-1 rich fractions. Additionally, double immunofluorescence staining of DENV-infected HMEC-1 cells showed that NS3 and NS2B, but not NS5, colocalized with Cav-1 and Flt-1. Furthermore, in HMEC-1cells transfected with NS3 protease, shown a strong overlap between NS3 and Cav-1, similar to that in DENV-infected cells. In contrast, double-stranded viral RNA (dsRNA) overlapped weakly with Cav-1 and Flt-1. Given these results, we investigated whether Cav-1 directly interacted with NS3. Cav-1 and NS3 co-immunoprecipitated, indicating that they resided within the same complex. Furthermore, when cellular cholesterol was depleted by methyl-beta cyclodextrin treatment after DENV entrance, lipid rafts were disrupted, NS3 protein level was reduced, besides Cav-1 and NS3 were displaced to fractions 9 and 10 in sucrose gradient analysis, and we observed a dramatically reduction of DENV particles release. These data demonstrate the essential role of caveolar cholesterol-rich lipid raft microdomains in DENV polyprotein processing and replication during the late stages of the DENV life cycle.PLoS ONE 03/2014; 9(3):e90704. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0090704 · 3.53 Impact Factor