Caveolin-1 suppresses human immunodeficiency virus-1 replication by inhibiting acetylation of NF-κB.
ABSTRACT Caveolin-1 is an integral membrane protein primarily responsible for the formation of membrane structures known as caveolae. Caveolae are specialized lipid rafts involved in protein trafficking, cholesterol homeostasis, and a number of signaling functions. It has been demonstrated that caveolin-1 suppresses HIV-1 protein expression. We found that co-transfecting cells with HIV-1 and caveolin-1 constructs, results in a marked decrease in the level of HIV-1 transcription relative to cells transfected with HIV-1 DNA alone. Correspondingly, reduction of endogenous caveolin-1 expression by siRNA-mediated silencing resulted in an enhancement of HIV-1 replication. Further, we observed a loss of caveolin-mediated suppression of HIV-1 transcription in promoter studies with reporters containing mutations in the NF-κB binding site. Our analysis of the posttranslational modification status of the p65 subunit of NF-κB demonstrates hypoacetylation of p65 in the presence of caveolin-1. Since hypoacetylated p65 has been shown to inhibit transcription, we conclude that caveolin-1 inhibits HIV-1 transcription through a NF-κB-dependent mechanism.
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ABSTRACT: High density lipoprotein (HDL) is assembled by interaction of apolipoprotein A-I with human monocytic leukemia cell line THP-1 by removing cellular cholesterol and phospholipid. Although the HDL formed with undifferentiated THP-1 cells contained only phosphatidylcholine and almost no cholesterol, the cells differentiated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) generated HDL enriched in cholesterol. The extent of cholesterol enrichment related to the cellular cholesterol level in the differentiated cells, but only weakly in the undifferentiated cells. In contrast, the differentiation had no influence on the diffusion-mediated cellular cholesterol efflux. The undifferentiated cells expressed the messages of ATP-binding cassette transporter 1 and caveolin-1, at low levels, and the PMA-induced differentiation resulted in substantial expression of both messages. Caveolin-1 protein expression was also highly induced by the PMA treatment of THP-1 cells. When the cells were treated with the antisense DNA of caveolin-1 and differentiated, both caveolin-1 synthesis and cholesterol incorporation into the HDL were reduced in parallel to generate the cholesterol-poor HDL. We concluded that caveolin-1 is involved in enrichment with cholesterol of the HDL generated by the apolipoprotein-cell interaction. This function is independent of the assembly of HDL particles with cellular phospholipid and of nonspecific, diffusion-mediated efflux of cellular cholesterol.The Journal of Lipid Research 01/2001; 41(12):1952-62. · 4.39 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We show that the binding of Rel p50 and p52 homodimers at sites within the transcriptional initiation region of HIV-1 provides for their ability to interact with other proteins that bind the initiator. The binding of one such protein, the initiator protein TFII-I, to the initiation region of HIV-1 is augmented in the presence of Rel p50 and Rel p52 homodimers. Consistent with this, in vitro Rel homodimers potentiate HIV-1 transcription in a manner dependent upon TFII-I. The findings suggest that Rel dimers may regulate HIV-1 transcription in two ways. First, through binding at the kappa B enhancer sites at (-104 to -80), NF-kappa B p50:p65 participates in classical transcriptional activation. Second, Rel dimers such as p50 or p52 might bind at initiator sequences to regulate the de novo binding of components of certain preinitiation complexes. These findings, and the existence of Rel binding sites at the initiators of other genes, suggest roles for Rel proteins in early events determining transcriptional control.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 11/1996; 93(22):12376-81. · 9.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The nuclear function of the heterodimeric NF-kappaB transcription factor is regulated in part through reversible acetylation of its RelA subunit. We now demonstrate that the p300 and CBP acetyltransferases play a major role in the in vivo acetylation of RelA, principally targeting lysines 218, 221 and 310 for modification. Analysis of the functional properties of hypoacetylated RelA mutants containing lysine-to-arginine substitutions at these sites and of wild-type RelA co-expressed in the presence of a dominantly interfering mutant of p300 reveals that acetylation at lysine 221 in RelA enhances DNA binding and impairs assembly with IkappaBalpha. Conversely, acetylation of lysine 310 is required for full transcriptional activity of RelA in the absence of effects on DNA binding and IkappaBalpha assembly. Together, these findings highlight how site-specific acetylation of RelA differentially regulates distinct biological activities of the NF-kappaB transcription factor complex.The EMBO Journal 01/2003; 21(23):6539-48. · 9.82 Impact Factor