Pex5p imports folded tetrameric catalase by interaction with pex13p.
ABSTRACT Human catalase forms a 240-kDa tetrameric complex and degrades H(2) O(2) in peroxisomes. Human catalase is targeted to peroxisomes by the interaction of its peroxisomal targeting signal type 1 (PTS1)-like KANL sequence with the cytosolic PTS1 receptor Pex5p. We show herein that human catalase tetramers are formed in the cytoplasm and that the expression of a PTS signal on each of the four subunits is not necessary for peroxisomal transport. We previously demonstrated that a Pex5p mutant defective in binding to Pex13p, designated Pex5p(Mut234), imports typical PTS1-type proteins but not catalase. This impaired catalase import is not rescued by replacing its C-terminal KANL sequence with a typical PTS1 sequence, SKL, indicating that the failure of catalase import in Mut234-expressing cells is not due to its weak PTS1. In contrast, several enzymatically inactive and monomeric mutants of catalase are efficiently imported in Mut234-expressing cells. Moreover, trimeric chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) harboring SKL is not imported in Pex5p(Mut234)-expressing cells, but CAT-SKL trimers are transported to peroxisomes in the wild-type cells. These findings suggest that the Pex5p-Pex13p interaction likely plays a pivotal role in the peroxisomal import of folded and oligomeric proteins.
- SourceAvailable from: Ernest L. Maynard[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The majority of proteins targeted to the peroxisomal lumen contain a C-terminal peroxisomal targeting signal-1 (PTS1) that is bound by the peroxin Pex5p. The PTS1 is generally regarded as a C-terminal tripeptide that adheres to the consensus (S/A/C)(K/R/H)(L/M). Previously, we studied the binding affinity of peptides of the form YQX(-3)X(-2)X(-1) to the peptide-binding domain of human Pex5p (referred to as Pex5p-C). Optimal affinity was found for YQSKL, which bound with an affinity of 200 +/- 40 nM. To extend this work, we investigated the properties of a peptide containing the last 9 residues of acyl-CoA oxidase (RHYLKPLQSKL) and discovered that it binds to Pex5p-C with a dissociation constant of 1.4 +/- 0.4 nM, 180 times tighter than YQSKL. Further analysis revealed that the enhanced affinity is primarily due to the presence of leucine in the (-5) position. In addition, a peptide corresponding to the luciferase C-terminus (YKGGKSKL) was found to bind Pex5p-C about 20 times tighter than YQSKL. The majority of this effect results from having lysine in position (-4). Catalase contains a noncanonical PTS1 (-AREKANL). The affinity of YQANL was found to be 3600 +/- 400 nM. This relatively weak binding is consistent with previous unsuccessful attempts to direct chloramphenicol acetyltransferase to the peroxisome by fusing -ANL to its C-terminus (-GGA-ANL). The peptides YKANL, YEKANL, YREKANL, and YAREKANL all bound Pex5p-C with higher affinities than did YQANL, but the affinities are still lower than peptides that correspond to functional targeting signals in other contexts. Because both catalase and Pex5p are tetramers (as opposed to the monomeric Pex5p-C and the peptides used in our studies), multidentate effects on binding affinity between Pex5p and other oligomeric proteins should be considered. Our study provides direct thermodynamic data revealing that peptide binding to Pex5p-C binding is favored by lysine in the (-4) position and leucine in the (-5) position. Our results suggest that peptides or proteins with optimized residues in the (-4) and/or (-5) positions can bind to Pex5p with affinities that are at least two orders of magnitude greater than that of YQSKL, and that this stabilization can compensates for otherwise weakly binding PTS1s.Proteins Structure Function and Bioinformatics 07/2004; 55(4):856-61. · 3.34 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Two AAA peroxins, Pex1p and Pex6p, are encoded by PEX1 and PEX6, the causal genes for peroxisome biogenesis disorders of complementation group 1 (CG1) and CG4, respectively. PEX26 responsible for peroxisome biogenesis disorders of CG8 encodes Pex26p, the recruiter of Pex1p.Pex6p complexes to peroxisomes. We herein assigned the binding regions between human Pex1p and Pex6p and elucidated pivotal roles of the AAA cassettes, called D1 and D2 domains, in Pex1p-Pex6p interaction and peroxisome biogenesis. ATP binding in both AAA cassettes but not ATP hydrolysis in D2 of both Pex1p and Pex6p was prerequisite for Pex1p-Pex6p interaction and their peroxisomal localization. The AAA cassettes, D1 and D2, were essential for peroxisome-restoring activity of Pex1p and Pex6p. In HEK293 cells, endogenous Pex1p was partly localized likely as a homo-oligomer in the cytoplasm, while Pex6p and Pex26p were predominantly localized on peroxisomes. Interaction of Pex1p with Pex6p conferred a conformational change and dissociation of the Pex1p oligomer. These results suggested that Pex1p possesses two distinct oligomeric forms, a homo-oligomer in the cytosol and a hetero-oligomer on peroxisome membranes, possibly playing distinct functions in peroxisome biogenesis.Journal of Biological Chemistry 10/2006; 281(38):27693-704. · 4.65 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We have used complementation analysis after somatic cell fusion to investigate the genetic relationships among various genetic diseases in humans in which there is a simultaneous impairment of several peroxisomal functions. The activity of acyl-coenzyme A:dihydroxyacetonephosphate acyltransferase, which is deficient in these diseases, was used as an index of complementation. In some of these diseases peroxisomes are deficient and catalase is present in the cytosol, so that the appearance of particle-bound catalase could be used as an index of complementation. The cell lines studied can be divided into at least five complementation groups. Group 1 is represented by a cell line from a patient with the rhizomelic form of chondrodysplasia punctata. Group 2 consists of cell lines from four patients with the Zellweger syndrome, a patient with the infantile form of Refsum disease and a patient with hyperpipecolic acidemia. Group 3 comprises one cel line from a patient with the Zellweger syndrome, group 4 one cell line from a patient with the neonatal form of adrenoleukodystrophy, and group 5 one cell line from a patient with the Zellweger syndrome. We conclude that at least five genes are required for the assembly of a functional peroxisome.Journal of Clinical Investigation 07/1988; 81(6):1710-5. · 12.81 Impact Factor