Reduction-responsive disassemblable core-cross-linked micelles based on poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(N-2-hydroxypropyl methacrylamide)-lipoic acid conjugates for triggered intracellular anticancer drug release.
ABSTRACT Reduction-sensitive reversibly core-cross-linked micelles were developed based on poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(N-2-hydroxypropyl methacrylamide)-lipoic acid (PEG-b-PHPMA-LA) conjugates and investigated for triggered doxorubicin (DOX) release. Water-soluble PEG-b-PHPMA block copolymers were obtained with M(n,PEG) of 5.0 kg/mol and M(n,HPMA) varying from 1.7 and 4.1 to 7.0 kg/mol by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. The esterification of the hydroxyl groups in the PEG-b-PHPMA copolymers with lipoic acid (LA) gave amphiphilic PEG-b-PHPMA-LA conjugates with degrees of substitution (DS) of 71-86%, which formed monodispersed micelles with average sizes ranging from 85.3 to 142.5 nm, depending on PHPMA molecular weights, in phosphate buffer (PB, 10 mM, pH 7.4). These micelles were readily cross-linked with a catalytic amount of dithiothreitol (DTT). Notably, PEG-b-PHPMA(7.0k)-LA micelles displayed superior DOX loading content (21.3 wt %) and loading efficiency (90%). The in vitro release studies showed that only about 23.0% of DOX was released in 12 h from cross-linked micelles at 37 °C at a low micelle concentration of 40 μg/mL, whereas about 87.0% of DOX was released in the presence of 10 mM DTT under otherwise the same conditions. MTT assays showed that DOX-loaded core-cross-linked PEG-b-PHPMA-LA micelles exhibited high antitumor activity in HeLa and HepG2 cells with low IC(50) (half inhibitory concentration) of 6.7 and 12.8 μg DOX equiv/mL, respectively, following 48 h incubation, while blank micelles were practically nontoxic up to a tested concentration of 1.0 mg/mL. Confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) studies showed that DOX-loaded core-cross-linked micelles released DOX into the cell nuclei of HeLa cells in 12 h. These reduction-sensitive disassemblable core-cross-linked micelles with excellent biocompatibility, superior drug loading, high extracellular stability, and triggered intracellular drug release are promising for tumor-targeted anticancer drug delivery.
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ABSTRACT: Bioreducible carboxymethyl dextran (CMD) derivatives are synthesized by the chemical modification of CMD with lithocholic acid (LCA) through a disulfide linkage. The hydrophobic nature of LCA allows the conjugates (CMD-SS-LCAs) to form self-assembled nanoparticles in aqueous conditions. Depending on the degree of LCA substitution, the particle diameters range from 163 to 242 nm. Doxorubicin (DOX), chosen as a model anticancer drug, is effectively encapsulated into the nanoparticles with high loading efficiency (>70%). In vitro optical imaging tests reveal that the fluorescence signal of DOX quenched in the bioreducible nanoparticles is highly recovered in the presence of glutathione (GSH), a tripeptide capable of reducing disulfide bonds in the intracellular compartments. Bioreducible nanoparticles rapidly release DOX when they are incubated with 10 mm GSH, whereas the drug release is greatly retarded in physiological buffer (pH 7.4). DOX-loaded bioreducible nanoparticles exhibit higher toxicity to SCC7 cancer cells than DOX-loaded nanoparticles without the disulfide bond. Confocal laser scanning microscopy observation demonstrate that bioreducible nanoparticles can effectively deliver DOX into the nuclei of SCC7 cells. In vivo biodistribution study indicates that Cy5.5-labeled CMD-SS-LCAs selectively accumulate at tumor sites after systemic administration into tumor-bearing mice. Notably, DOX-loaded bioreducible nanoparticles exhibit higher antitumor efficacy than reduction-insensitive control nanoparticles. Overall, it is evident that bioreducible CMD-SS-LCA nanoparticles are useful as a drug carrier for cancer therapy.Advanced Healthcare Materials 04/2014;
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ABSTRACT: The multi-modal combination therapy is proved powerful and successful to enhance the antitumor efficacy in clinics as compared with single therapy modes. In this study, the potential of combining chemotherapy with antiangiogenic therapy for the treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer is explored. Towards this aim, OEGylated carboxymethyl cellulose–(2-(2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethoxy)methyl)oxirane (CMC–ME2MO) is prepared by treating CMC with ME2MO in the alkaline aqueous solution, and used to efficiently carry doxorubicin (DOX) with high drug-loading content (16.64%) and encapsulation efficiency (99.78%). As compared to free DOX, the resulting nanoparticles show not only the favorable stability in vitro but also the prolonged blood circulation, improved safety and tolerability, optimized biodistribution, reduced systemic toxicity, and enhanced antitumor efficacy in vivo, indicates a potential utility in cancer chemotherapy. Furthermore, the combination of the DOX-loaded polysaccharide nanoparticles and antiangiogenic drug endostar provides synergistic effects of chemotherapy and antiangiogenic therapy, which shows the highest efficiency in tumor suppression. The combination approach of the DOX-containing nanomedicine and endostar for efficient treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer is first proposed to demonstrate the synergistic therapeutic effect. This synergistic combination proves to be a promising therapeutic regimen in cancer therapy and holds great potential for clinical application.Advanced Healthcare Materials 05/2014;
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ABSTRACT: In this study, we designed and developed galactose-installed photo-crosslinked pH-sensitive degradable micelles (Gal-CLM) for active targeting chemotherapy of hepatocellular carcinoma in mice. Gal-CLM was readily obtained from co-self-assembly of poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(mono-2,4,6-trimethoxy benzylidene-pentaerythritol carbonate- co-acryloyl carbonate) (PEG-b-P(TMBPEC-co-AC) and Gal-PEG-b-poly(ε-caprolactone) (Gal-PEG-b-PCL) copolymers followed by photo-crosslinking. Notably, paclitaxel (PTX)-loaded Gal-CLM (Gal-PTX-CLM) showed a narrow distribution (PDI=0.08-0.12) with average sizes ranging from 92.1-136.3nm depending on the Gal contents. The release of PTX from Gal-CLM while inhibited at physiological pH was enhanced under endosomal pH conditions. MTT assays in asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGP-R) over-expressing HepG2 cells demonstrated that half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of Gal-PTX-CLM decreased from 11.7, 2.9, to 1.1μg/mL with increasing Gal contents from 10%, 20% to 30%, supporting receptor-mediated endocytosis mechanism. The in vivo biodistribution studies in human hepatoma SMMC-7721 tumor-bearing nude mice displayed that Gal20-PTX-CLM resulted in significantly enhanced drug accumulation in the tumors over non-targeting PTX-CLM counterpart. In accordance, Gal20-PTX-CLM caused much greater tumor growth inhibition than non-targeting PTX-CLM as well as non-crosslinking Gal20-PTX-NCLM controls (average tumor volume: ca. 35mm(3)versus 144mm(3) and 130mm(3), respectively). Histological analysis showed that Gal20-PTX-CLM induced more extensive apoptosis of tumor cells while less damage to normal liver and kidney as compared to Taxol. Ligand-installed photo-crosslinked pH-responsive degradable micelles have a great potential for targeted cancer chemotherapy.Journal of controlled release : official journal of the Controlled Release Society. 05/2014;