Reduction-Responsive Disassemblable Core-Cross-Linked Micelles Based on Poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(N-2-hydroxypropyl methacrylamide)-Lipoic Acid Conjugates for Triggered Intracellular Anticancer Drug Release
ABSTRACT Reduction-sensitive reversibly core-cross-linked micelles were developed based on poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(N-2-hydroxypropyl methacrylamide)-lipoic acid (PEG-b-PHPMA-LA) conjugates and investigated for triggered doxorubicin (DOX) release. Water-soluble PEG-b-PHPMA block copolymers were obtained with M(n,PEG) of 5.0 kg/mol and M(n,HPMA) varying from 1.7 and 4.1 to 7.0 kg/mol by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. The esterification of the hydroxyl groups in the PEG-b-PHPMA copolymers with lipoic acid (LA) gave amphiphilic PEG-b-PHPMA-LA conjugates with degrees of substitution (DS) of 71-86%, which formed monodispersed micelles with average sizes ranging from 85.3 to 142.5 nm, depending on PHPMA molecular weights, in phosphate buffer (PB, 10 mM, pH 7.4). These micelles were readily cross-linked with a catalytic amount of dithiothreitol (DTT). Notably, PEG-b-PHPMA(7.0k)-LA micelles displayed superior DOX loading content (21.3 wt %) and loading efficiency (90%). The in vitro release studies showed that only about 23.0% of DOX was released in 12 h from cross-linked micelles at 37 °C at a low micelle concentration of 40 μg/mL, whereas about 87.0% of DOX was released in the presence of 10 mM DTT under otherwise the same conditions. MTT assays showed that DOX-loaded core-cross-linked PEG-b-PHPMA-LA micelles exhibited high antitumor activity in HeLa and HepG2 cells with low IC(50) (half inhibitory concentration) of 6.7 and 12.8 μg DOX equiv/mL, respectively, following 48 h incubation, while blank micelles were practically nontoxic up to a tested concentration of 1.0 mg/mL. Confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) studies showed that DOX-loaded core-cross-linked micelles released DOX into the cell nuclei of HeLa cells in 12 h. These reduction-sensitive disassemblable core-cross-linked micelles with excellent biocompatibility, superior drug loading, high extracellular stability, and triggered intracellular drug release are promising for tumor-targeted anticancer drug delivery.
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ABSTRACT: The combination of chemotherapeutic drugs with different pharmacological action has emerged as a promising therapeutic strategy in the treatment of cancers. Present study examines the antitumor potential of paclitaxel (PTX) and etoposide (ETP)-loaded PLGA nanoparticles for the treatment of osteosarcoma. The resulting drug-loaded PLGA NP exhibited a nanosize dimension with uniform spherical morphology. The NP exhibited a sustained release profile for both PTX and ETP throughout the study period without any sign of initial burst release. The combinational drug-loaded PLGA NP enhanced the cytotoxic effect in MG63 and Saos-2 osteosarcoma cell lines, in comparison to either native drug alone or in cocktail combinations. Additionally, NPs showed an appreciable uptake in MG63 cells in a time-based manner. Co-delivery of anticancer drugs resulted in enhanced cell cycle arrest and cell apoptosis. The results clearly showed that combinational drugs remarkably improved the therapeutic index of chemotherapeutic drugs. The greater inhibitory effect of nanoparticle combination would be of great advantage during systemic cancer therapy. Taken together, our study demonstrated that PTX-ETP/PLGA NP based combination therapy holds significant potential towards the treatment of osteosarcoma.Journal of Nanobiotechnology 12/2015; 13(1):22. DOI:10.1186/s12951-015-0086-4 · 4.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Polymeric micelles (PM) are extensively used to improve the delivery of hydrophobic drugs. Many different PM have been designed and evaluated over the years, and some of them have steadily progressed through clinical trials. Increasing evidence suggests, however, that for prolonged circulation times and for efficient EPR-mediated drug targeting to tumors and to sites of inflammation, PM need to be stabilized, to prevent premature disintegration. Core-crosslinking is among the most popular methods to improve the in vivo stability of PM, and a number of core-crosslinked polymeric micelles (CCPM) have demonstrated promising efficacy in animal models. The latter is particularly true for CCPM in which (pro-) drugs are covalently entrapped. This ensures proper drug retention in the micelles during systemic circulation, efficient drug delivery to pathological sites via EPR, and tailorable drug release kinetics at the target site. We here summarize recent advances in the CCPM field, addressing the chemistry involved in preparing them, their in vitro and in vivo performance, potential biomedical applications, and guidelines for efficient clinical translation.Nano Today 02/2015; 10(1). DOI:10.1016/j.nantod.2015.01.005 · 18.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Reversibly shell cross-linked micelles based on a lipoic acid (LA) decorated triblock copolymer poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(γ-benzyl-L-glutamate)-b-poly(L-phenylalanine) (PEG-PGlu(EDA-LA)-PPhe) have been developed for active loading and efficient intracellular delivery of DOX. The triblock copolymer was synthesized through consecutive ring-opening polymerization of cyclic monomers γ -benzyl-L-glutamate N-carboxyanhydride (BLG-NCA) and L-phenylalanine N-carboxyanhydride (Phe-NCA) using amino-terminated poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG-NH2) as macroinitiator, followed by conjugation with LA for reversible cross-linking. The amphiphilic polymer was self-assembled to core shell corona micelles, which could be further crosslinked in the presence of a catalytic amount of dithiothreitol (DTT) in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) to form shell-cross-linking micelles (SCLM). The SCLM showed excellent stability under physiological conditions but rapid dissociation and drug release in reductive environments mimicking those of the cytoplasm and the cell nucleus. Confocal laser scanning microscopy further demonstrated that DOX was delivered and released into the nuclei of HeLa cells following 12 h incubation with DOX-loaded SCLM. MTT assays revealed that DOX-loaded SCLM had similar anti-tumor activity as non-cross-linked micelles (NCLM) for HeLa cells following 48 h incubation. PEG-PGlu(EDA-LA)-PPhe micelles displayed low cytotoxicity up to a concentration of 1.0 mg/mL. These biodegradable reversibly shell-cross-linked micelles provide a promising platform for intelligent intracellular drug delivery in clinical chemotherapy.RSC Advances 02/2015; DOI:10.1039/C4RA12255K · 3.71 Impact Factor