Ascorbic Acid Uptaken by Sodium-Dependent Vitamin C Transporter 2 Induces βhCG Expression through Sp1 and TFAP2A Transcription Factors in Human Choriocarcinoma Cells.
ABSTRACT Context: Vitamin C [ascorbic acid (AA)] is transported by sodium-dependent vitamin C transporters (SVCT) 1 and 2, and our previous studies show AA induces a dramatic production of steroid hormones in human choriocarcinoma cells. However, whether AA induces the production of placental polypeptide hormones remains unknown. Here we investigated the mechanisms governing AA-induced β-human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) expression. Methods: Frozen sections from human term placentas were used for immunostaining of SVCT, and βhCG mRNA expression and its production in primary human placental cytotrophoblasts and JEG-3 cells were examined by quantitative RT-PCR and ELISA, respectively. Knockdown of SVCT2, transcription factor activating enhancer-binding protein 2α (TFAP2A), or specificity protein-1 (Sp1) expression was achieved by retrovirus-mediated short hairpin RNA, and the transcriptional factors responsible for AA-induced βhCG expression was identified by reporter constructs. Results: Both SVCT1 and SVCT2 are expressed in human term placentas. SVCT2 is predominantly localized in the syncytial layer, whereas SVCT1 is predominantly distributed in the villous core. AA dramatically induces βhCG mRNA expression and its production in JEG-3 cells and primary human cytotrophoblasts, and knockdown of SVCT2 expression in JEG-3 cells significantly decreases AA-induced βhCG expression. Data from βhCG5 construct and its deletion mutants further indicate that AA induces βhCG5 transactivation through Sp1 and TFAP2A transcriptional factors, and silence of Sp1 and/or TFAP2A expression significantly decreased AA-induced βhCG5 reporter activity and βhCG expression as well. Conclusions: The present study revealed the novel effects of AA on polypeptide hormone, βhCG, production and the potential mechanisms governing AA-induced βhCG expression, suggesting the potentially indispensable roles of AA in placental endocrine and pregnant maintenance.
SourceAvailable from: Haibin Wang[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Inhibitors of phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) are widely used to treat erectile dysfunction and pulmonary hypertension in clinics. PDE5, cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), and protein kinase G (PKG) are important components of the non-canonical Wnt signaling. This study aimed to investigate the effect of PDE5 inhibition on canonical Wnt signaling and osteoblastogenesis, using both in vitro cell culture and in vivo animal models. In the in vitro experiments, PDE5 inhibition resulted in activation of cGMP-dependent protein kinase 2 and consequent inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase 3β phosphorylation, destabilization of cytosolic β-catenin and the ultimate suppression of canonical Wnt signaling and reduced osteoblastic differentiation in HEK293T and C3H10T1/2 cells. In animal experiments, systemic inhibition of PDE5 suppressed the activity of canonical Wnt signaling and osteoblastogenesis in bone marrow-derived stromal cells, resulting in the reduction of bone mass in wild-type adult C57B/6 mice, significantly attenuated secreted Frizzled-related protein-1 (SFRP1) deletion-induced activation of canonical Wnt signaling and excessive bone growth in adult SFRP1(-/-) mice. Together, these results uncover a hitherto uncharacterized role of PDE5/cGMP/PKG signaling in bone homeostasis and provide the evidence that long-term treatment with PDE5 inhibitors at a high dosage may potentially cause bone catabolism.Cell Death & Disease 11/2014; 5:e1544. DOI:10.1038/cddis.2014.510 · 5.18 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cholesterol modification of Hedgehog (Hh) ligands is fundamental for the activity of Hh signaling, and cholesterol biosynthesis is also required for intracellular Hh signaling transduction. Here, we investigated the roles and underlying mechanism of Hh signaling in metabolism of cholesterol. The main components of the Hh pathway are abundantly expressed in both human cytotrophoblasts and trophoblast-like cells. Activation of Hh signaling induces the conversion of cholesterol to progesterone (P4) and estradiol (E2) through up-regulating the expression of steroidogenic enzymes including P450 cholesterol side chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (3β-HSD1), and aromatase. Moreover, inhibition of Hh signaling attenuates not only Hh-induced expression of steroidogenic enzymes but also the conversion of cholesterol to P4 and E2. Whereas Gli3 is required for Hh-induced P450scc expression, Gli2 mediates the induction of 3β-HSD1 and aromatase. Finally, in ovariectomized nude mice, systemic inhibition of Hh signaling by cyclopamine suppresses circulating P4 and E2 levels derived from a trophoblast-like choricarcinoma xenograft, and attenuates uterine response to P4 and E2. Together these results uncover a hitherto uncharacterized role of Hh signaling in metabolism of cholesterol. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.Cellular Signalling 01/2015; 27(3). DOI:10.1016/j.cellsig.2015.01.004 · 4.47 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Recently, we reported that preferential maternal-fetal vitamin C (vitC) transport across the placenta is likely to be impaired by prolonged maternal vitC deficiency. Maintenance of a basal maternal vitC supply at the expense of the fetus may impair fetal development; however, the knowledge of vitC's impact on intrauterine development is sparse. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of maternal vitC status on fetal and placental development in guinea pigs. Twenty pregnant Dunkin Hartley guinea pigs were randomized into four groups to receive diets either sufficient (918 mg/kg CTRL) or deficient (100 mg/kg DEF) in vitC. Cesarean sections at gestational day (GD) 45 or 56 allowed for fetal and placental measurements. At GD45, body, brain and placental weights were significantly reduced in DEF pups compared with CTRL (p < 0.05, p < 0.001 and p < 0.05, respectively). DEF plasma vitC levels were ~6 % of those of CTRL (p < 0.0001), and the fetal/maternal plasma vitC ratio was significantly reduced at GD56 in the DEF animals compared with controls (p = 0.035). Placental vitC levels were reduced in DEF animals (p < 0.0001) and the ascorbate oxidation ratio and glutathione elevated compared with controls (p < 0.0001). Although no clinical differences between CTRL and DEF pups were observed at GD56, the present data suggest that vitC plays a role in early fetal development. Although no clinical differences between CTRL and DEF pups were observed at GD56, the present data suggest that vitC plays a role in early fetal development. Low maternal vitC intake during pregnancy may compromise maternal weight gain, placental function and intrauterine development.European Journal of Nutrition 12/2014; DOI:10.1007/s00394-014-0809-6 · 3.84 Impact Factor