Quality of care and outcomes among patients with acute myocardial infarction by level of kidney function at admission: report from the get with the guidelines coronary artery disease program.
ABSTRACT Many patients admitted for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) have chronic renal insufficiency. We studied the impact of chronic renal insufficiency on mortality and quality of inpatient care for AMI from the American Heart Association's Get With The Guidelines-Coronary Artery Disease Program.
We hypothesized that mortality and quality of inpatient care would not vary with renal function.
We examined in-hospital AMI performance measures by renal function based on glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Severity of renal insufficiency was categorized as normal (GFR ≥ 90 mL/min/1.73 m2), mild (GFR 60-90 mL/min/1.73 m2), moderate (GFR 30-60 mL/min/1.73 m2), severe (GFR 15-30 mL/min/1.73 m2), and kidney failure (GFR ≤ 15 mL/min/1.73 m2 or dialysis). A total of 21721 patients from 291 sites were studied, with most data collected in 2008 to 2009. Multivariable regression analysis after adjusting for patient characteristics was performed and generalized estimating equations were used to account for within-hospital clustering. In-hospital mortality and quality of inpatient care were assessed.
Renal insufficiency was present in 82.0 percent of AMI patients. The adjusted odds ratio vs normal renal function for mortality increased with worsening renal function: 1.45 for mild renal insufficiency (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03-2.05, P = 0.03); 3.36 for moderate renal insufficiency (95% CI: 2.31-4.89, P < 0.0001); 5.43 for severe renal insufficiency (95% CI: 3.70-7.95, P < 0.0001); and 6.35 for kidney failure (95% CI: 4.48-9.01, P < 0.0001). Patients with renal insufficiency received less inpatient and discharge guideline-recommended therapy for AMI.
Among AMI patients, mortality and guideline-recommended inpatient therapy correlated inversely with renal function. Adjusted mortality was equally poor among patients with severe renal dysfunction and on dialysis. Clin. Cardiol. 2012 doi: 10.1002/clc.22021 Christopher P. Cannon, MD, has received research grants/support from Accumetrics, AstraZeneca, GlaxoSmithKline, Intekrin Therapeutics, Merck, and Takeda; is a member of the advisory board (funds donated to charity) of Bristol-Myers Squibb/Sanofi, Novartis, and Alnylam; received an honorarium for development of independent educational symposia from Pfizer and AstraZeneca; and is a clinical advisor with equity in Automedics Medical Systems. Gregg C. Fonarow, MD, is a consultant for Novartis and Pfizer. W. Frank Peacock, MD, has received research grants (>$10000) from Abbott, Alere, Brahms, Corthera, EKR, Nanosphere, and The Medicines Company; is a consultant (<$10000) for Abbott, Alere, Beckman Coulter, Electrocore, and The Medicines Company; participates in the speakers' bureau (<$10000) with Abbott and Alere; and has an ownership interest (<$10000) in Comprehensive Research Associates LLC, Vital Sensors, and Emergencies in Medicine LLC. Lee H. Schwamm, MD, is a consultant for Stroke Systems and Medtronic. Deepak L. Bhatt, MD, MPH, discloses the following relationships - Advisory Board: Medscape Cardiology; Board of Directors: Boston VA Research Institute, Society of Chest Pain Centers; Chair: American Heart Association Get With The Guidelines Science Subcommittee; Honoraria: American College of Cardiology (Editor, Clinical Trials, Cardiosource), Duke Clinical Research Institute (clinical trial steering committees), Slack Publications (Chief Medical Editor, Cardiology Today Intervention), WebMD (CME steering committees); Research Grants: Amarin, AstraZeneca, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Eisai, Ethicon, Medtronic, Sanofi Aventis, The Medicines Company; Unfunded Research: FlowCo, PLx Pharma, Takeda. Sylvia E. Rosas has received a research grant from Abbott Laboratories and honorarium from Genzyme. The Get With The Guidelines-Coronary Artery Disease (GWTG-CAD) program was provided by the American Heart Association. The GWTG-CAD program was supported in part through the American Heart Association Pharmaceutical Roundtable and an unrestricted educational grant from Merck. The authors have no other funding, financial relationships, or conflicts of interest to disclose. Additional Supporting Information may be found in the online version of this article.
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ABSTRACT: The cardiovascular risk associated with early renal insufficiency is unknown. Clinicians are often reluctant to use angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in patients with renal insufficiency. To determine whether mild renal insufficiency increases cardiovascular risk and whether ramipril decreases that risk. Post hoc analysis. The Heart Outcomes and Prevention Evaluation (HOPE) study, a randomized, double-blind, multinational trial involving 267 study centers. 980 patients with mild renal insufficiency (serum creatinine concentration >/= 124 micromol/L [>/=1.4 mg/dL]) and 8307 patients with normal renal function (serum creatinine concentration < 124 micromol/L [<1.4 mg/dL]) Patients with a baseline serum creatinine concentration greater than 200 micromol/L (2.3 mg/dL) were excluded. The primary outcome measure was incidence of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke. Cumulative incidence of the primary outcome was higher in patients with renal insufficiency than in those without (22.2% vs. 15.1%; P < 0.001) and increased with serum creatinine concentration. Patients with renal insufficiency had a substantially increased risk for cardiovascular death (11.4% vs. 6.6%) and total mortality (17.8% vs. 10.6%) (P < 0.001 for both comparisons). The effect of renal insufficiency on the primary outcome (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.40 [95% CI, 1.16 to 1.69]) was independent of known cardiovascular risks and treatment. Ramipril reduced the incidence of the primary outcome in patients with and those without renal insufficiency (hazard ratio, 0.80 vs. 0.79; P > 0.2 for the difference). In patients who had preexisting vascular disease or diabetes combined with an additional cardiovascular risk factor, mild renal insufficiency significantly increased the risk for subsequent cardiovascular events. Ramipril reduced cardiovascular risk without increasing adverse effects.Annals of internal medicine 04/2001; 134(8):629-36. · 13.98 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The use of Web-based technology and a collaborative model to improve hospital adherence to secondary prevention guidelines has not been previously evaluated. Twenty-four hospitals in Massachusetts participated in a collaborative that met quarterly, with didactic and best-practice presentations and interactive multidisciplinary team workshops. A customized tool kit and interactive, Web-based management tool were used for data collection and on-line feedback. Data from 1738 patients admitted with coronary artery disease were collected by hospital staff from July 1, 2000, to June 30, 2001. Outcome measures included differences between baseline and 10- to 12-month follow-up measurements of use of aspirin, beta-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, cholesterol measurement and treatment, smoking cessation counseling, blood pressure control, and cardiac rehabilitation referral. Clinically and statistically significant increases from baseline to 10- to 12-month follow-up were demonstrated in smoking cessation counseling (48% [95% confidence interval [CI], 36.6%-58.4%] to 87% [95% CI, 73.1%-100.7%]), lipid treatment (54% [95% CI, 46.6%-70.2%] to 79% [95% CI, 70.2%-88.3%]), lipid measurement (59% [95% CI, 51.5%-66.0%] to 81% [95% CI, 72.0%-89.5%]), and cardiac rehabilitation referral (34% [95% CI, 25.9%-39.7%] to 73% [95% CI, 63.2%-82.9%]). An improving trend was seen in blood pressure control (60% [95% CI, 55.3%-65.6%] to 68% [95% CI, 60.2%-76.1%]). High baseline use was maintained for use of aspirin, beta-blockers, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. Implementation of a collaborative quality improvement initiative, interactive training of hospital teams with physician champions, and the use of an interactive Web-based Patient Management Tool enhanced adherence to prevention guidelines in hospitalized patients with coronary artery disease.Archives of Internal Medicine 02/2004; 164(2):203-9. · 11.46 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: There is a high prevalence of both reduced kidney function as well as cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the elderly. We evaluated whether the level of kidney function is an independent risk factor for CVD outcomes in the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS), a cohort of subjects whose age at baseline was 65 years old or older. Cox proportional-hazards regression was used to evaluate the association of predicted glomerular filtration rate (GFR) with CVD after adjustment for the major CVD risk factors. We searched for nonlinear relationships between GFR and CVD, as well as interactions between level of kidney function and major CVD risk factors on CVD. A total of 4893 subjects with predicted GFR of 15 to 130 mL/min/1.73 m2 were included in the analysis. Fifty-six percent were female and the mean age was 73.4 years. Of the subjects, 549 (11.2%) died and 1229 (25.1%) experienced CVD events in 5.05 years of follow-up. Each 10 mL/min/1.73 m2 lower GFR was associated with an adjusted hazard ratio for CVD, de novo CVD, recurrent CVD and all-cause mortality of 1.05 (1.02, 1.09), 1.07 (1.01, 1.12), 1.04 (0.99, 1.09), and 1.06 (1.00, 1.12), respectively. There was no significant interaction between level of GFR and other traditional CVD risk factors on CVD outcomes. A linear model best described the relationship between GFR and CVD. The level of GFR is an independent risk factor for CVD, de novo CVD, and all-cause mortality in the elderly.Kidney International 04/2003; 63(3):1121-9. · 7.92 Impact Factor