Targeting the intrinsic inflammatory pathway: honokiol exerts proapoptotic effects through STAT3 inhibition in transformed Barrett's cells.

Department of Medicine, Veterans Affairs North Texas Health Care System and University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, USA.
AJP Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology (Impact Factor: 3.65). 06/2012; 303(5):G561-9. DOI: 10.1152/ajpgi.00033.2012
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT One way to link chronic inflammation with cancer is through the intrinsic inflammatory pathway, in which genetic alterations that induce malignant transformation also produce a cancer-promoting, inflammatory microenvironment. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) contributes to the intrinsic inflammatory pathway in Barrett's esophagus. In human tumors, honokiol (a polyphenol in herbal teas) has growth-inhibitory and proapoptotic effects associated with suppressed activation of STAT3. We used human Barrett's epithelial and esophageal adenocarcinoma cell lines to determine effects of honokiol on cell number, necrosis, apoptosis, and anchorage-independent growth and to explore STAT3's role in those effects. We determined Ras activity and expression of phosphorylated ERK1/2, phosphorylated Akt, and phosphorylated STAT3 in the presence or absence of honokiol. Cells were infected with constitutively active Stat3-C to assess effects of honokiol-induced STAT3 inhibition on apoptosis. Honokiol decreased cell number and increased necrosis and apoptosis in transformed Barrett's cells, but not in nontransformed cells. In adenocarcinoma cells, honokiol also increased necrosis and apoptosis and decreased anchorage-independent growth. Within 30 min of honokiol treatment, transformed Barrett's cells decreased expression of phosphorylated STAT3; decreases in Ras activity and phosphorylated ERK1/2 expression were detected at 24 h. Infection with Stat3-C significantly reduced apoptosis after honokiol treatment. Honokiol causes necrosis and apoptosis in transformed Barrett's and esophageal adenocarcinoma cells, but not in nontransformed Barrett's cells, and the proapoptotic effects of honokiol are mediated by its inhibition of STAT3 signaling. These findings suggest a potential role for targeting the intrinsic inflammatory pathways as a therapeutic strategy to prevent Barrett's carcinogenesis.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Radioresistance is a frustrating obstacle for patients with colorectal cancers (CRCs) undergoing radiotherapy. There is an urgent need to find an effective agent to increase the sensitivity of CRCs to radiation. Honokiol, an active compound purified from Magnolia, was found to radiosensitize colorectal cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. However, the mechanisms control important signaling that enhances radiosensitivity is currently unknown. In this study, we have reviewed important signaling pathways that are closely related to radiosensitization, such as cell cycle arrest, tumor angiogenesis, JAK/STAT3 signaling pathway and Mismatch repair. Studies show that honokiol can interfere with these pathways at different levels. With overall analysis, it may bring light on finding the possible mechanism by which honokiol acts as a radiosensitizing agent for CRCs.
    Current Colorectal Cancer Reports 12/2013; 9(4). DOI:10.1007/s11888-013-0191-4
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Esophageal adenocarcinoma is the eighth most common malignancy worldwide. The overall prognosis is poor, with 5-year survival ranges of approximately 15-25%, and 30-50% for patients who can be treated with curative intent. There has been a marked increase in incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma over the last 30 years, with chronic and severe reflux, diet and obesity identified as principal factors fuelling this rise in the West. Esophageal adenocarcinoma is an exemplar model of an inflammation-associated cancer. The key molecular pathways driving tumor development and influencing tumor biology are the subject of considerable research efforts, and is the principal focus of this review. In addition, the diverse range of changes occurring in the local immune response, tissue microenvironment, metabolic profile, intracellular signaling mechanisms and microRNA signatures are discussed, as well as novel targeted therapies.
    Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 05/2014; DOI:10.1586/17474124.2014.913478 · 2.55 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We have shown previously that honokiol (HNK), a bioactive component of the medicinal plant Magnolia officinalis, inhibits growth of human prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. However, the effect of HNK on androgen receptor (AR) signaling has not been studied. LNCaP, C4-2, and TRAMP-C1 cells were used for various assays. Trypan blue dye exclusion assay or clonogenic assay was performed for determination of cell viability. The effects of HNK and/or its analogs on protein levels of AR and its target gene product prostate specific antigen (PSA) were determined by western blotting. RNA interference of p53 was achieved by transient transfection. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was performed for mRNA expression of AR. Nuclear level of AR was visualized by microscopy. Apoptosis was quantified by DNA fragmentation assay or flow cytometry after Annexin V-propidium iodide staining. HNK and its dichloroacetate analog (HDCA) were relatively more effective in suppressing cell viability and AR protein level than honokiol epoxide or biseugenol. Nuclear translocation of AR stimulated by a synthetic androgen (R1881) was markedly suppressed in the presence of HNK. Downregulation of AR protein resulting from HNK exposure was attributable to transcriptional repression as well as proteasomal degradation. HNK-mediated suppression of AR protein was maintained in LNCaP cells after knockdown of p53 protein. HNK-induced apoptosis was not affected by R1881 treatment. The present study demonstrates, for the first time, that HNK inhibits activity of AR in prostate cancer cells regardless of the p53 status. Prostate © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    The Prostate 12/2013; DOI:10.1002/pros.22762 · 3.57 Impact Factor