Targeting the intrinsic inflammatory pathway: Honokiol exerts proapoptotic effects through STAT3 inhibition in transformed barrett's cells
ABSTRACT One way to link chronic inflammation with cancer is through the intrinsic inflammatory pathway, in which genetic alterations that induce malignant transformation also produce a cancer-promoting, inflammatory microenvironment. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) contributes to the intrinsic inflammatory pathway in Barrett's esophagus. In human tumors, honokiol (a polyphenol in herbal teas) has growth-inhibitory and proapoptotic effects associated with suppressed activation of STAT3. We used human Barrett's epithelial and esophageal adenocarcinoma cell lines to determine effects of honokiol on cell number, necrosis, apoptosis, and anchorage-independent growth and to explore STAT3's role in those effects. We determined Ras activity and expression of phosphorylated ERK1/2, phosphorylated Akt, and phosphorylated STAT3 in the presence or absence of honokiol. Cells were infected with constitutively active Stat3-C to assess effects of honokiol-induced STAT3 inhibition on apoptosis. Honokiol decreased cell number and increased necrosis and apoptosis in transformed Barrett's cells, but not in nontransformed cells. In adenocarcinoma cells, honokiol also increased necrosis and apoptosis and decreased anchorage-independent growth. Within 30 min of honokiol treatment, transformed Barrett's cells decreased expression of phosphorylated STAT3; decreases in Ras activity and phosphorylated ERK1/2 expression were detected at 24 h. Infection with Stat3-C significantly reduced apoptosis after honokiol treatment. Honokiol causes necrosis and apoptosis in transformed Barrett's and esophageal adenocarcinoma cells, but not in nontransformed Barrett's cells, and the proapoptotic effects of honokiol are mediated by its inhibition of STAT3 signaling. These findings suggest a potential role for targeting the intrinsic inflammatory pathways as a therapeutic strategy to prevent Barrett's carcinogenesis.
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- "As GRP78 has a key role in sensing ER stress and subsequent homeostatic responses, agents that interfere or modulate this activity may have therapeutic potential. Although EGCG (Nam et al, 2001) and HNK (Yu et al, 2012) may have other biological properties, studies showing that the AB5 subtilase toxin, which cleaves GRP78 specifically, synergistically enhances the activity of ER stress inducers on melanoma cells (Martin et al, 2010) support the idea that chemical inhibitors of GRP78 may be effective as chemotherapeutic drugs. Nevertheless, although EGCG induces cell death and can overcome resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs (Ermakova et al, 2006; Virrey et al, 2008), on the basis of the present studies it did not have useful properties in combination with agents that induce ER stress. "
ABSTRACT: Background: Glucose regulated protein 78 (GRP78) functions as a sensor of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that molecules that bind to GRP78 induce the unfolded protein response (UPR) and enhance cell death in combination with ER stress inducers. Methods: Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), measurement of cell death by flow cytometry and the induction of ER stress markers using western blotting. Results: Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a flavonoid component of Green Tea Camellia sinensis, and honokiol (HNK), a Magnolia grandiflora derivative, bind to unfolded conformations of the GRP78 ATPase domain. Epigallocatechin gallate and HNK induced death in six neuroectodermal tumour cell lines tested. Levels of death to HNK were twice that for EGCG; half-maximal effective doses were similar but EGCG sensitivity varied more widely between cell types. Honokiol induced ER stress and UPR as predicted from its ability to interact with GRP78, but EGCG was less effective. With respect to cell death, HNK had synergistic effects on melanoma and glioblastoma cells with the ER stress inducers fenretinide or bortezomib, but only additive (fenretinide) or inhibitory (bortezomib) effects on neuroblastoma cells. Conclusion: Honokiol induces apoptosis due to ER stress from an interaction with GRP78. The data are consistent with DSC results that suggest that HNK binds to GRP78 more effectively than EGCG. Therefore, HNK may warrant development as an antitumour drug.British Journal of Cancer 06/2013; 109(2). DOI:10.1038/bjc.2013.325 · 4.82 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Honokiol (3,5-di-(2-propenyl)-1,1-biphenyl-2,2-diol) is a natural bioactive neolignan isolated from the genus Magnolia. In recent studies, honokiol has been observed to have anti-angiogenic, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective and GABA-modulating properties in vitro and in preclinical models. Honokiol and its analogs target multiple signaling pathways including NF-κB, STAT3, EGFR, mTOR and caspase-mediated common pathway, which regulate cancer initiation and progression. Honokiol and its targets of action may be helpful in the development of effective analogs and targeted cancer therapy. In this review, recent data describing the molecular targets of honokiol and its analogs with anticancer and some other bioactivities are discussed.Future medicinal chemistry 05/2013; 5(7):809-29. DOI:10.4155/fmc.13.32 · 4.00 Impact Factor
Article: Effect of honokiol on erythrocytes[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Honokiol ((3,5-di-(2-propenyl)-1,1-biphenyl-2,2-diol), a component of Magnolia officinalis, stimulates apoptosis and is thus considered for the treatment of malignacy. In analogy to apoptosis of nucleated cells, erythrocytes may enter eryptosis, a suicidal death characterized by cell shrinkage and by breakdown of cell membrane phosphatidylserine asymmetry with phosphatidylserine-exposure at the erythrocyte surface. Eryptosis may be triggered following increase of cytosolic Ca(2+)-activity ([Ca(2+)]i). The present study explored, whether honokiol elicits eryptosis. Cell volume has been estimated from forward scatter, phosphatidylserine-exposure from annexin V binding, hemolysis from hemoglobin release, [Ca(2+)]i from Fluo3-fluorescence, and ceramide from fluorescent antibodies. As a result, a 48 h exposure to honokiol was followed by a slight but significant increase of [Ca(2+)]i (15 μM), significant decrease of forward scatter (5 μM), significant increase of annexin-V-binding (5 μM) and significant increase of ceramide formation (15 μM). Honokiol further induced slight, but significant hemolysis. Honokiol (15 μM) induced annexin-V-binding was significantly blunted but not abrogated in the nominal absence of extracellular Ca(2+). In conclusion, honokiol triggers suicidal erythrocyte death or eryptosis, an effect at least in part due to stimulation of Ca(2+) entry and ceramide formation.Toxicology in Vitro 05/2013; 27(6). DOI:10.1016/j.tiv.2013.05.003 · 3.21 Impact Factor