The Three Dermoglandular Flap Support in Reduction Mammaplasty
ABSTRACT Bilateral breast reduction is an established procedure performed to relieve the physical pain and psychological discomfort associated with heavy, pendulous breasts. Numerous techniques have been developed over the years with several refinements to obtain safe nipple-areola complex transposition and harmonious breast shape. Based on the experience of the senior author (M.P.), the three dermoglandular flap technique is proposed to achieve a safe and aesthetically pleasing breast reduction through the surgical concept of dermal support.
The authors analyzed the benefits of the three dermoglandular flap technique performed in a selected group of smoking patients with a potentially high risk of postoperative complications and high probability of breast ptosis recurrence (each patient had breast volume >1000 cc, breast nipple ptosis grade 3 on Regnault's scale, and body mass index >27). Blood supply to the nipple-areola complex was based on an inferior-central pedicle.
Between 1995 and 2007, 47 smokers underwent bilateral breast reduction using the three dermoglandular flap technique. Their ages ranged from 37 to 63 years (mean, 49 years), and their average body mass index was 31.2 kg/m (range, 27 to 38). The overall complications rate was 14.9 percent. No wound breakdowns and no complete or partial necrosis of the nipple-areola complex was observed. Follow-up ranged from 18 to 48 months (mean, 32 months).
: Three dermoglandular flap reduction mammaplasty produced good cone shape, soft texture, and fullness in the central and inferior pole with satisfactory breast projection and was stable over time. It offers a safe and practical approach in the treatment of challenging breast hypertrophy.
- Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery 03/2013; 131(3):440e-3e. DOI:10.1097/PRS.0b013e31827c70dc · 3.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background: Reduction mammaplasty is an established and effective technique to treat symptomatic macromastia. Variable rates of complications have been reported, and there is a continued need for better outcome assessment studies. Objective: The authors investigate predictors of postoperative complications following reduction mammaplasty using the National Surgery Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) data sets. Methods: The 2005–2010 American College of Surgeons NSQIP databases were reviewed to identify primary encounters for reduction mammaplasty using Current Procedural Terminology code 19318. Two complication types were recorded: major complications (deep infection and return to operating room) and any complication (all surgical complications). Preoperative patient factors and comorbidities, as well as intraoperative variables, were assessed. A multivariate regression analysis was used to identify independent predictors of complications. Results: A total of 3538 patients were identified with an average age of 43 years and body mass index of 31.6 kg/m2. Most patients underwent outpatient surgery (80.5%) with an average operative time of 180 minutes. The incidence of overall surgical complications was 5.1%. The following factors were independently associated with any surgical complications: morbid obesity (odds ratio [OR], 2.1; P < .001), active smoking (OR, 1.7; P < .001), history of dyspnea (OR, 2.0; P < .001), and resident participation (OR, 1.8; P = .01). The incidence of major surgical complications was 2.1%. Factors associated with major complications included active smoking (OR, 2.7; P < .001), dyspnea (OR, 2.6; P < .001), resident participation (OR, 2.1; P < .001), and inpatient surgery (OR, 1.8; P = .01). Conclusions: This study demonstrates overall incidence of complications in 1 in 20 patients and a 1 in 50 incidence of a major surgical complication. Noteworthy findings include the identification of morbid obesity as a significant predictor of overall morbidity and active smoking as a strong predictor of major surgical morbidity. These data can assist surgeons in preoperative counseling and enhance perioperative decision making. Level of Evidence: 3Aesthetic surgery journal / the American Society for Aesthetic Plastic surgery 12/2013; 34(1). DOI:10.1177/1090820X13515676 · 2.03 Impact Factor