Once considered to be incurable, now most patients with the diagnosis of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) survive and are cured of their disease. Although HL survivors are out living their disease, they continue to have increased morbidity and mortality compared to their age-matched and sex-matched peers in the general population. Late complications of their treatment are well documented and include cardiovascular diseases, pulmonary diseases, endocrine dysfunction and second malignancy. Research exploring appropriate surveillance for these complications is lacking. However, evidence to support surveillance is mounting and many are publishing consensus-based guidelines recommending surveillance for these anticipated complications. This review will summarize the most recent literature addressing the appropriate surveillance for late complications in patients in remission from HL.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many women develop breast cancer after treatment for Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) at a young age. We estimated this future risk, taking into account age and calendar year of HL diagnosis, HL treatment information, population breast cancer incidence rates, and competing causes of death.
Relative risks of breast cancer for categories defined by radiation dose to the chest (0, 20- < 40 Gy, or > or = 40 Gy) and use of alkylating agents (yes or no) were estimated from a case-control study conducted within an international population-based cohort of 3817 female 1-year survivors of HL diagnosed at age 30 years or younger from January 1, 1965, through December 31, 1994. To compute cumulative absolute risks of breast cancer, we used modified standardized incidence ratios to relate cohort breast cancer risks to those in the general population, enabling application of population-based breast cancer rates, and we allowed for competing risks by using population-based mortality rates in female HL survivors.
Cumulative absolute risks of breast cancer increased with age at end of follow-up, time since HL diagnosis, and radiation dose. For an HL survivor who was treated at age 25 years with a chest radiation dose of at least 40 Gy without alkylating agents, estimated cumulative absolute risks of breast cancer by age 35, 45, and 55 years were 1.4% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.9% to 2.1%), 11.1% (95% CI = 7.4% to 16.3%), and 29.0% (95% CI = 20.2% to 40.1%), respectively. Cumulative absolute risks were lower in women treated with alkylating agents.
Breast cancer projections varied considerably by type of HL therapy, time since HL diagnosis, and age at end of follow-up. These estimates are applicable to HL survivors treated with regimens of the past and can be used to counsel such patients and plan management and preventive strategies. Projections should be used with caution, however, in patients treated with more recent approaches, including limited-field radiotherapy and/or ovary-sparing chemotherapy.
Journal of the National Cancer Institute 10/2005; 97(19):1428-37. DOI:10.1093/jnci/dji290 · 12.58 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess long-term cause-specific mortality of young Hodgkin's disease (HD) patients.
The study population consisted of 1,261 patients treated for HD before age 41 between 1965 and 1987. Follow-up was complete until October 2000. For 95% of deaths, the cause was known. Long-term cause-specific mortality was compared with general population rates to assess relative risk (RR) and absolute excess risk (AER) of death.
After a median follow-up of 17.8 years, 534 patients had died (55% of HD). The RR of death from all causes other than HD was 6.8 times that of the general population, and still amounted to 5.1 after more than 30 years. RRs of death resulting from solid tumors (STs) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) were increased overall (RR = 6.6 and 6.3, respectively), but especially in patients treated before age 21 (RR = 14.8 and 13.6, respectively). When these patients grew older, this elevated mortality decreased. The overall AER of death from causes other than HD increased throughout follow-up. Patients receiving salvage chemotherapy had a significantly increased RR of death from STs, compared to patients receiving initial therapy only.
The main cause of death among HD patients was lymphoma, but after 20 years, HD mortality was negligible. The RRs and AERs of death from second primary cancers (SCs) and CVDs continued to increase after 10 years. Even more than 30 years after diagnosis, HD patients experienced elevated risk of death from all causes other than HD. Increased risk of death from SCs and CVDs was found especially in patients treated before age 21, but these risks seemed to abate with age.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vitamin D insufficiency is common in the United States, with low levels linked in some studies to higher cancer incidence, including non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Recent data also suggest that vitamin D insufficiency is related to inferior prognosis in some cancers, although there are no data for NHL.
We tested the hypothesis that circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels are predictive of event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) in a prospective cohort of 983 newly diagnosed patients with NHL. 25(OH)D and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)(2)D] levels were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.
Mean age at diagnosis was 62 years (range, 19 to 94 years); 44% of patients had insufficient 25(OH)D levels (< 25 ng/mL) within 120 days of diagnosis. Median follow-up was 34.8 months; 404 events and 193 deaths (168 from lymphoma) occurred. After adjusting for known prognostic factors and treatment, 25(OH)D insufficient patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) had inferior EFS (hazard ratio [HR], 1.41; 95% CI, 0.98 to 2.04) and OS (HR, 1.99; 95% CI, 1.27 to 3.13); 25(OH)D insufficient patients with T-cell lymphoma also had inferior EFS (HR, 1.94; 95% CI, 1.04 to 3.61) and OS (HR, 2.38; 95% CI, 1.04 to 5.41). There were no associations with EFS for the other NHL subtypes. Among patients with DLBCL and T-cell lymphoma, higher 1,25(OH)(2)D levels were associated with better EFS and OS, suggesting that any putative tumor 1-α-hydroxylase activity did not explain the 25(OH)D associations.
25(OH)D insufficiency was associated with inferior EFS and OS in DLBCL and T-cell lymphoma. Whether normalizing vitamin D levels in these patients improves outcomes will require testing in future trials.
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