Adjuvant Therapy of Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors (GIST)

Adult Mesenchymal Tumour Medical Oncology Unit, Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Via G. Venezian 1, 20133, Milano, Italy.
Current Treatment Options in Oncology (Impact Factor: 3.24). 06/2012; 13(3):277-84. DOI: 10.1007/s11864-012-0198-0
Source: PubMed


Imatinib was proven to be effective for the adjuvant treatment of localized, surgically excised, gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST). Currently, there is proof that it is able to delay relapse and prolong survival. An effect on cure rate of localized GIST is still to be proven, given the shape of relapse-free survival curves, which apparently tend to overlap after 2-3 years from completion of the adjuvant period. Although observation for a longer follow-up is needed, attempts to prolong adjuvant therapy beyond the currently standard 3 years have been made and the results are awaited. However, the impact of more prolonged adjuvant intervals on secondary resistance is unknown, so that standard practice is still 3 years in most institutions. The adjuvant choice should be based on a rather precise identification of the relapse risk of the single patient, reserving treatment to the high-risk subgroups. The choice also should be personalized on the basis of genotype: generally, PDGFRA D842V mutated and wild-type GIST are excluded. Additional results from completed trials on a longer follow-up are awaited to further refine such "precision" decision-making. There are several instances in which part of the "adjuvant" treatment may be administered preoperatively, even on the face of a surgically resectable GIST, to make surgery more limited and/or safer.

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    • "Based on this risk classification, all the patients with tumour rupture should be considered at high risk for recurrence [39] [37]. Imatinib mesylate, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, has been found to be beneficial after radical resective surgery of high-risk GISTs [39] [40]. More recently, adjuvant therapy with imitinab has been used with wider indications, such as intermediate-risk tumours with size > 3 cm and primary tumours with rupture or perforation . "
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    ABSTRACT: A few cases of acute abdomen caused by perforation of small-intestinal gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) have been reported in the literature. Together with a review of the published cases, here we report a case of an elderly patient with peritonitis due to spontaneous perforation of a GIST of the jejunum. An 82-year-old man was admitted to the emergency unit of our hospital with fever and severe abdominal pain. An abdominal enhanced computed tomography scan detected a 6cm solid mass in the left upper quadrant adherent to a jejunal loop and surrounded by free fluid and free air. Due to the radiological features of the mass, the diagnosis of a perforation of a GIST arising from the jejunum wall was suspected. The patient underwent emergency laparotomy. Intraoperative findings confirmed diffuse peritonitis secondary to jejunal tumour perforation. A segmental resection of the jejunum containing the mass was performed followed by a mechanical end-to-side anastomosis. The histopathologic examination of the mass confirmed the diagnosis of a perforated GIST of the small intestine (high-risk category). The post-operative course was uneventful and the patient was treated with adjuvant imatinib therapy. Twenty-one other cases of spontaneous perforation of small intestine GISTs are reported in the literature and are summarized in the present review. The described case is the tip of the iceberg and spontaneous rupture or perforation of GISTs are a far more frequent first presentation of this rare tumour. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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