Adjuvant therapy of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST).
ABSTRACT Imatinib was proven to be effective for the adjuvant treatment of localized, surgically excised, gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST). Currently, there is proof that it is able to delay relapse and prolong survival. An effect on cure rate of localized GIST is still to be proven, given the shape of relapse-free survival curves, which apparently tend to overlap after 2-3 years from completion of the adjuvant period. Although observation for a longer follow-up is needed, attempts to prolong adjuvant therapy beyond the currently standard 3 years have been made and the results are awaited. However, the impact of more prolonged adjuvant intervals on secondary resistance is unknown, so that standard practice is still 3 years in most institutions. The adjuvant choice should be based on a rather precise identification of the relapse risk of the single patient, reserving treatment to the high-risk subgroups. The choice also should be personalized on the basis of genotype: generally, PDGFRA D842V mutated and wild-type GIST are excluded. Additional results from completed trials on a longer follow-up are awaited to further refine such "precision" decision-making. There are several instances in which part of the "adjuvant" treatment may be administered preoperatively, even on the face of a surgically resectable GIST, to make surgery more limited and/or safer.
- SourceAvailable from: Michael C Heinrich[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: No effective therapeutic options for patients with unresectable imatinib-resistant gastrointestinal stromal tumour are available. We did a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre, international trial to assess tolerability and anticancer efficacy of sunitinib, a multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor, in patients with advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumour who were resistant to or intolerant of previous treatment with imatinib. Blinded sunitinib or placebo was given orally once daily at a 50-mg starting dose in 6-week cycles with 4 weeks on and 2 weeks off treatment. The primary endpoint was time to tumour progression. Intention-to-treat, modified intention-to-treat, and per-protocol analyses were done. This study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00075218. 312 patients were randomised in a 2:1 ratio to receive sunitinib (n=207) or placebo (n=105); the trial was unblinded early when a planned interim analysis showed significantly longer time to tumour progression with sunitinib. Median time to tumour progression was 27.3 weeks (95% CI 16.0-32.1) in patients receiving sunitinib and 6.4 weeks (4.4-10.0) in those on placebo (hazard ratio 0.33; p<0.0001). Therapy was reasonably well tolerated; the most common treatment-related adverse events were fatigue, diarrhoea, skin discolouration, and nausea. We noted significant clinical benefit, including disease control and superior survival, with sunitinib compared with placebo in patients with advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumour after failure and discontinuation of imatinab. Tolerability was acceptable.The Lancet 11/2006; 368(9544):1329-38. · 39.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Adjuvant imatinib mesylate prolongs recurrence-free survival (RFS) after resection of localised primary gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST). We aimed to develop a nomogram to predict RFS after surgery in the absence of adjuvant therapy to help guide patient selection for adjuvant imatinib therapy. A nomogram to predict RFS based on tumour size (cm), location (stomach, small intestine, colon/rectum, or other), and mitotic index (<5 or > or =5 mitoses per 50 high-power fields) was developed from 127 patients treated at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC), New York, NY, USA. The nomogram was tested in patients from the Spanish Group for Research on Sarcomas (GEIS; n=212) and the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA (Mayo; n=148). The nomogram was assessed by calculating concordance probabilities and testing calibration of predicted RFS with observed RFS. Concordance probabilities were also compared with those of three commonly used staging systems. The nomogram had a concordance probability of 0.78 (SE 0.02) in the MSKCC dataset, and 0.76 (0.03) and 0.80 (0.02) in the validation cohorts. Nomogram predictions were well calibrated. Inclusion of tyrosine kinase mutation status in the nomogram did not improve its discriminatory ability. Concordance probabilities of the nomogram were better than those of the two NIH staging systems (0.76 [0.03] vs 0.70 [0.04, p=0.04] and 0.66 [0.04, p=0.01] in the GEIS validation cohort; 0.80 [0.02] vs 0.74 [0.02, p=0.04] and 0.78 [0.02, p=0.05] in the Mayo cohort) and similar to those of the AFIP-Miettinen staging system (0.76 [0.03] vs 0.73 [0.004, p=0.28] in the GEIS cohort; 0.80 [0.02] vs 0.76 [0.003, p=0.09] in the Mayo cohort). Nomogram predictions of RFS seemed better calibrated than predictions made with the AFIP-Miettinen system. The nomogram accurately predicts RFS after resection of localised primary GIST and could be used to select patients for adjuvant imatinib therapy.The lancet oncology 09/2009; 10(11):1045-52. · 14.47 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In metastasized GISTs, resistance to imatinib after initial tumour response has been associated with observation of secondary mutations in the activation loop of KIT. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the tumour response and observance of secondary KIT mutations in a case of GIST undergoing neoadjuvant imatinib therapy. We report on a case of an initially unresectable gastric GIST with curative resection after 10 months of neoadjuvant imatinib therapy. Mutation analysis of KIT was performed on a pretherapeutic biopsy specimen, as well as on the resected tumour specimen. The pretherapeutic biopsy revealed cKit positive tumour cells with mutation of KIT exon 11 Del 560-576. The remaining tumour mass after neoadjuvant imatinib therapy almost exclusively consisted of hypocellular myxohyalinale stroma with rare microfoci of cKit positive tumour cells. Laser microdissection of several tumour microfoci revealed two additional point mutations located in the activation loop of KIT exon 17, C809G and N822Y, each observed separately in a distinct microfocus. Neither of these two point mutations has been reported in a GIST so far. Neoadjuvant imatinib therapy successfully reduces tumour size in GISTs. Since resistance relevant secondary mutations of the activation loop of KIT may be observed after neoadjuvant imatinib therapy, the time elapse with preoperative imatinib therapy should be chosen as short as curative tumour resection or function sparing surgery can be carried out. The determination of the optimal time point for surgery is therefore a critical event and will be discussed.Annals of Surgical Oncology 03/2007; 14(2):526-32. · 4.12 Impact Factor