Importance of local hypoxia on endothelial phenotype for an in vitro approach to bone marrow angiogenesis.
ABSTRACT The vasculature of bone marrow differs from that in other organs, and its characteristics should be considered when exploring the medullar angiogenesis associated with hematological malignancies. We show here that the human bone marrow sinusoidal cell line HBME-1 has a specific expression pattern of angiogenic factors and receptors, characterized by a unique VEGFR3(+), Tie2(-) signature, that resembles the in vivo pattern. Moreover, the HBME-1 cultured for up to 3 days in hypoxic conditions, similar to those found in the bone marrow, specifically downregulated expression of VEGFR1, VEGFR2 and ETAR. Thus, a model using bone marrow sinusoidal cells cultured under reduced oxygen tension may be more relevant than classical in vitro endothelial cultures for understanding the interactions between endothelial and malignant cells in the medullar microenvironment.
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ABSTRACT: The CXCR4/SDF-1 axis has been studied extensively because of its role in development and hematopoiesis. In acute myeloid leukemia (AML), elevated expression of CXCR4 has been shown to correlate with shortened survival. Hy-poxia increases CXCR4 in several tumor models, but the impact of reduced O(2) partial pressure (pO(2)) on expression and biologic function of CXCR4 in AML is unknown. We determined pO(2) in bone marrows of AML patients as 6.1% (+/-1.7%). At this pO(2), CXCR4 surface and total expression were up-regulated within 10 hours in leukemic cell lines and patient samples as shown by Western blotting, fluorescence-activated cell sorting, and microscopy. Interestingly, hypoxic cells failed to internalize CXCR4 in response to SDF-1, and upon reoxygenation at 21% O(2), surface and total expression of CXCR4 rapidly decreased independent of adenosine triphosphate or proteasome activity. Instead, increased pO(2) led to alteration of lipid rafts by cholesterol depletion and structural changes and was associated with increased shedding of CXCR4-positive microparticles, suggesting a novel mechanism of CXCR4 regulation. Given the importance of CXCR4 in cell signaling, survival, and adhesion in leukemia, the results suggest that pO(2) be considered a critical variable in conducting and interpreting studies of CXCR4 expression and regulation in leukemias.Blood 11/2008; 113(7):1504-12. · 9.78 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The study of human microvascular endothelial cells has been limited, because these cells are difficult to isolate in pure culture, are fastidious in their in vitro growth requirements, and have a very limited lifespan. In order to overcome these difficulties, we have transfected human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC) with a PBR-322-based plasmid containing the coding region for the simian virus 40 A gene product, large T antigen, and succeeded in immortalizing them. These cells, termed CDC/EU.HMEC-1 (HMEC-1), have been passaged 95 times to date and show no signs of senescence, whereas normal microvascular endothelial cells undergo senescence at passages 8-10. HMEC-1 exhibit typical cobblestone morphology when grown in monolayer culture, express and secrete von Willebrand's Factor, take up acteylated low-density lipoprotein, and rapidly form tubes when cultured on matrigel. HMEC-1 grow to densities three to seven times higher than microvascular endothelial cells and require much less stringent growth medium. HMEC-1 will grow in the absence of human serum, whereas microvascular endothelial cells require culture medium supplemented with 30% human serum. These cells express other cell-surface molecules typically associated with endothelial cells, including CD31 and CD36 and epitopes identified by monoclonal antibodies EN4 and PAL-E. They also express the cell adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and CD44 and following stimulation with interferon-gamma express major histocompatibility complex class II antigens. HMEC-1 specifically bind lymphocytes in cell adhesion assays. Thus HMEC-1 is the first immortalized human microvascular endothelial cell line that retains the morphologic, phenotypic, and functional characteristics of normal human microvascular endothelial cells.Journal of Investigative Dermatology 01/1993; 99(6):683-90. · 6.37 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Myelosuppression damages the bone marrow (BM) vascular niche, but it is unclear how regeneration of bone marrow vessels contributes to engraftment of transplanted hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) and restoration of hematopoiesis. We found that chemotherapy and sublethal irradiation induced minor regression of BM sinusoidal endothelial cells (SECs), while lethal irradiation induced severe regression of SECs and required BM transplantation (BMT) for regeneration. Within the BM, VEGFR2 expression specifically demarcated a continuous network of arterioles and SECs, with arterioles uniquely expressing Sca1 and SECs uniquely expressing VEGFR3. Conditional deletion of VEGFR2 in adult mice blocked regeneration of SECs in sublethally irradiated animals and prevented hematopoietic reconstitution. Similarly, inhibition of VEGFR2 signaling in lethally irradiated wild-type mice rescued with BMT severely impaired SEC reconstruction and prevented engraftment and reconstitution of HSPCs. Therefore, regeneration of SECs via VEGFR2 signaling is essential for engraftment of HSPCs and restoration of hematopoiesis.Cell stem cell 04/2009; 4(3):263-74. · 23.56 Impact Factor