Surface acoustic wave nebulization facilitating lipid mass spectrometric analysis.
ABSTRACT Surface acoustic wave nebulization (SAWN) is a novel method to transfer nonvolatile analytes directly from the aqueous phase to the gas phase for mass spectrometric analysis. The lower ion energetics of SAWN and its planar nature make it appealing for analytically challenging lipid samples. This challenge is a result of their amphipathic nature, labile nature, and tendency to form aggregates, which readily precipitate clogging capillaries used for electrospray ionization (ESI). Here, we report the use of SAWN to characterize the complex glycolipid, lipid A, which serves as the membrane anchor component of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and has a pronounced tendency to clog nano-ESI capillaries. We also show that unlike ESI SAWN is capable of ionizing labile phospholipids without fragmentation. Lastly, we compare the ease of use of SAWN to the more conventional infusion-based ESI methods and demonstrate the ability to generate higher order tandem mass spectral data of lipid A for automated structure assignment using our previously reported hierarchical tandem mass spectrometry (HiTMS) algorithm. The ease of generating SAWN-MS(n) data combined with HiTMS interpretation offers the potential for high throughput lipid A structure analysis.
- SourceAvailable from: Jack (Jikui) Luo[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Ultra-smooth nanocrystalline diamond (UNCD) films with high-acoustic wave velocity were introduced into ZnO-based surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices to enhance their microfluidic efficiency by reducing the acoustic energy dissipation into the silicon substrate and improving the acoustic properties of the SAW devices. Microfluidic efficiency of the ZnO-based SAW devices with and without UNCD inter layers was investigated and compared. Results showed that the pumping velocities increase with the input power and those of the ZnO/UNCD/Si devices are much larger than those of the ZnO/Si devices at the same power. The jetting efficiency of the droplet was improved by introducing the UNCD interlayer into the ZnO/Si SAW device. Improvement in the microfluidic efficiency is mainly attributed to the diamond layer, which restrains the acoustic wave to propagate in the top layer rather than dissipating into the substrate.Microfluidics and Nanofluidics 03/2013; 15(3):377-386. · 3.22 Impact Factor