Utility of Glucose Transporter 1 in the Distinction of Benign and Malignant Thoracic and Abdominal Mesothelial Lesions
ABSTRACT Malignant mesothelioma, of either peritoneum or pleura, is an uncommon cancer. The diagnosis is often difficult to make, in part because of the overlapping morphology of reactive and malignant mesothelial cells. Glucose transporter 1 (GLUT-1) is a glucose transporter typically found on erythrocytes, which is aberrantly expressed in various carcinomas. It has recently been reported as specific and sensitive in discriminating malignant pleural mesothelioma from reactive hyperplasia. The application of GLUT-1 staining in peritoneal mesothelioma has not been fully explored.
To determine if GLUT-1 staining is helpful in distinguishing abdominal mesotheliomas from benign, reactive mesothelial lesions and to further study its utility in the thorax.
Tissue microarrays containing 135 abdominal malignant mesotheliomas and 30 malignant pleural mesotheliomas were stained with an antibody to GLUT-1, as were 56 reactive mesothelial lesions.
The overall sensitivity and specificity for GLUT-1 in mesothelioma was 53% and 98%, respectively. The sensitivity in epithelioid malignant mesothelioma was 49% and in sarcomatoid/biphasic malignant mesothelioma, 66%. In the thorax, the sensitivity was 50% and in the abdomen it was 54%. The positive predictive value of GLUT-1 immunoreactivity was 98% and the negative predictive value was 40%.
Glucose transporter 1 staining of thoracic mesotheliomas showed high specificity but lower sensitivity than previously reported. Abdominal malignant mesotheliomas showed similar results. Because of low sensitivity, only positive staining is informative. In both sites, the utility of the stain was limited by nonspecific staining (eg, in necrotic areas) as well as bright labeling of erythrocytes and occasional lymphoid elements. Despite these limitations, GLUT-1 can help differentiate malignant mesothelioma from reactive benign mesothelium.
SourceAvailable from: Shinya Toyokuni[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Malignant mesothelioma (MM), which is associated with asbestos exposure, is one of the most deadly tumors in humans. Early MM is concealed in the serosal cavities and lacks specific clinical symptoms. For better treatment, early detection and prognostic markers are necessary. Recently, CD146 and insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding protein 3 (IMP3) were reported as possible positive markers of MM to distinguish from reactive mesothelia in humans. However, their application on MM of different species and its impact on survival remain to be elucidated. To disclose the utility of these molecules as early detection and prognostic markers of MM, we injected chrysotile or crocidolite intraperitoneally to rats, thus obtaining 26 peritoneal MM and establishing 11 cell lines. We immunostained CD146 and IMP3 using paraffin-embedded tissues and cell blocks and found CD146 and IMP3 expression in 58% (15/26) and 65% (17/26) of MM, respectively, but not in reactive mesothelia. There was no significant difference in both immunostainings for overexpression among the three histological subtypes of MM and the expression of CD146 and IMP3 was proportionally associated. Furthermore, the overexpression of CD146 and/or IMP3 was proportionally correlated with shortened survival. These results suggest that CD146 and IMP3 are useful diagnostic and prognostic markers of MM.Cancer Science 08/2013; 104(8). DOI:10.1111/cas.12185 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objective Mesothelial hyperplasia (MH) and fibrosing pleuritis (FP) can be difficult to distinguish from epithelioid (MM-E) and sarcomatoid (MM-S) malignant pleural mesotheliomas. GLUT-1 has shown variable results regarding its sensitivity and specificity when used to evaluate mesothelial proliferations. We evaluated the utility of GLUT-1 immunostaining in differentiating MH and FP from MM-E and MM-S. Materials and Methods In this retrospective study, diagnostically well-characterized cases (MH = 31, FP = 29, MM-E = 41, MM-S = 29) were collected and manually stained for GLUT-1. All slides were visually scored by 2 pathologists; using the following system: 0%, 1+ 1-25%, 2+ 26-50% and 3+ > 51% cells staining. Results All benign cases (n = 60) were negative for GLUT-1 while 45 of 78 (58%) MM [21 of 41 (50%) MM-E, 21 of 29 (72%) MM-S and 3 of 3 biphasic mesothelioma (100%)] had 1+ to 3+ staining. Of the MM-E, 10 had 1+, and 11 had 2+ staining; of the MM-S 3 had 1+, 15 had 2+ and 3 had 3+ staining. Both sarcomatoid and epithelioid components of the 3 biphasic mesotheliomas revealed 1+ staining. All 5 desmoplastic MM were negative. Conclusions Positive staining with GLUT-1 is helpful since it is present in half of MM-E and three-quarter of MM-S. Although all reactive mesothelial lesions were negative, the absence of immunoreactivity does not exclude the diagnosis of MM. As with all IHC stains used for diagnostic purposes, GLUT-1 has to be a part of a panel, and the results interpreted in the context of clinical, radiological and histological findings.Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands) 01/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.lungcan.2013.12.009 · 3.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The differentiation of malignant mesotheliomas and benign mesothelial proliferations is crucial in determining patient care and prognosis. But, this distinction can be extremely difficult, particularly in small biopsies. Recently, insulin-like growth factor II mRNA-binding protein 3 (IMP3) and glucose transporter 1 (GLUT-1) have been reported as specific and sensitive markers in the distinction of mesotheliomas from benign mesothelial proliferations. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the utility of IMP3, GLUT-1, and epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) immunohistochemistry for distinguishing mesotheliomas from benign mesothelial proliferations. Immunoexpression of IMP3, GLUT-1, and EMA was evaluated in 88 malignant mesotheliomas, 35 adenomatoid tumors, and 20 benign lung tissues with reactive mesothelial cells. The sensitivity for IMP3, GLUT-1, and EMA was 37%, 21%, and 41%, respectively. The specificity for IMP3, GLUT-1, and EMA was 100%. When IMP3, GLUT1, and EMA combined, the sensitivity was 66% for IMP3/EMA staining, 53% for GLUT-1/EMA staining, and 45% for IMP3/GLUT-1. Use of IMP3 and EMA together is more helpful to distinguish malignant mesotheliomas from benign mesothelial proliferations than the use of IMP3 or EMA alone.Pathology International 12/2014; 64(12). DOI:10.1111/pin.12216 · 1.59 Impact Factor