Dietary exposure assessment of putrescine and cadaverine and derivation of tolerable levels in selected foods consumed in Austria

European Food Research and Technology (Impact Factor: 1.56). 05/2012; 235(2). DOI: 10.1007/s00217-012-1748-1

ABSTRACT Biogenic amines (histamine, tyramine, putres-cine, cadaverine, agmatine, spermidine and spermine) are nitrogenous compounds. They occur naturally in living organisms and are involved in many biological processes. Nonetheless, high amounts in food may be hazardous to human health. The diamines putrescine and cadaverine in food can potentiate the effects of simultaneously ingested histamine. In protein-rich foods, high concentrations of these diamines are indicative for hygienic deficiencies in the food chain. Even though being formed endogenously and being essential for some physiological metabolic pathways, both diamines are known as precursors for car-cinogenic nitrosamines. Putrescine also plays a certain role in tumour growth. Nevertheless, no tolerable levels in foods have been established so far. The present study suggests tolerable levels in cheese, fermented sausages, fish, sauerkraut and seasonings that are based on toxico-logical threshold levels, occurrence of diamines in foods and food consumption in Austria. Average daily intake of putrescine via fermented food was calculated to be 6.8 (female adults) and 8.8 (male adults) mg per person. Respective numbers for cadaverine were 9.8 and 11.6 mg per person and day. For putrescine, proposed maximum tolerable levels for sauerkraut, fish, cheese, fermented sausages and seasonings are 140, 170, 180, 360 and 510 mg/kg, respectively. Likewise, for cadaverine, in sauerkraut, fish, cheese, fermented sausages and season-ings, maximum tolerable levels are 430, 510, 540, 1,080 and 1,540 mg/kg, respectively. These limits can be met by current manufacturing practices, as ascertained from the results of our own studies and from literature. Admittedly, only few data are published on toxicological threshold levels of these diamines, which mean that these tolerable levels are associated with some uncertainty.

Download full-text


Available from: Elke Rauscher-Gabernig, Sep 28, 2015
1 Follower
343 Reads
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The content of eight biologically active amines in two groups of smear-ripened cheeses (unwashed-rind and washed-rind) was analysed. The biogenic amine levels were determined after storage at 5 °C in three periods of shelf lifetime: at the minimum durability date; 1 and 2 weeks after this date. The analytical procedure consisted of amine extraction from sample matrix, derivatisation with dansyl chloride and ultra-performance liquid chromatography quantification. The content of biogenic amines and polyamines significantly differed according to the technology of ripening. The cheeses unwashed during ripening had much higher contents of all observed amines and polyamines in comparison with the washed-rind cheeses. The mean content of putrescine, cadaverine and tyramine exceeded 100 mg/kg in unwashed-rind cheeses, while the other amines occurred at lower levels. The content of all detected amines was very low in washed-rind cheeses; no tryptamine, phenylethylamine and histamine were found. The effect of storage on the amine formation was not confirmed.
    European Food Research and Technology 09/2013; 237(3). DOI:10.1007/s00217-013-1993-y · 1.56 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The effects of vacuum packaging followed by high pressure processing on the shelf-life of fillets of pike (Esox lucius) were examined. Samples were pressure-treated at 300 and 500MPa and stored at 3.5 and 12°C for up to 70days. The content of eight biogenic amines (putrescine, cadaverine, spermidine, spermine, histamine, tyramine, tryptamine and phenylethylamine) were determined. Putrescine showed very good correspondence with the level of applied pressure and organoleptic properties. Polyamines spermidine and spermine did not show statistically significant changes with the level of applied pressure and the time of storage. Increased cadaverine and tyramine contents were found in samples with good sensory signs, stored for longer time and/or kept at 12°C, thus indicating the loss of freshness. Tryptamine and phenylethylamine were not detected in pressure-treated samples kept at 3.5°C. Histamine was not detected in samples of good quality.
    Food Chemistry 05/2014; 151:466-71. DOI:10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.11.094 · 3.39 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the safety of biogenic amines, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to evaluate the levels of biogenic amines in fermented soya beans and fermented bean curd. In fermented soya beans, the total biogenic amines content was in a relatively safe range in many samples, though the concentration of histamine, tyramine, and β-phenethylamine was high enough in some samples to cause a possible safety threat, and 8 of the 30 samples were deemed unsafe. In fermented bean curd, the total biogenic amines content was more than 900 mg/kg in 19 white sufu amples, a level that has been determined to pose a safety hazard; putrescine was the only one detected in all samples and also had the highest concentration, which made samples a safety hazard; the content of tryptamine, β-phenethylamine, tyramine and histamine had reached the level of threat to human health in some white and green sufu samples, and that may imply another potential safety risk; and 25 of the 33 samples were unsafe. In conclusion, the content of biogenic amines in all fermented soya bean products should be studied and appropriate limits determined to ensure the safety of eating these foods.
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 07/2014; 62(31). DOI:10.1021/jf501772s · 2.91 Impact Factor
Show more