Genetically induced moderate inhibition of the proteasome in cardiomyocytes exacerbates myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury in mice.
ABSTRACT Both cardiomyocyte-restricted proteasome functional enhancement and pharmacological proteasome inhibition (PSMI) were shown to attenuate myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. The role of cardiac proteasome dysfunction during I/R and the perspective to diminish I/R injury by manipulating proteasome function remain unclear.
We sought to determine proteasome adequacy in I/R hearts, create a mouse model of cardiomyocyte-restricted PSMI (CR-PSMI), and test CR-PSMI impact on I/R injury.
Myocardial I/R were modeled by ligation (30 minutes) and subsequent release of the left anterior descending artery in mice overexpressing GFPdgn, a validated surrogate proteasome substrate. At 24 hours of reperfusion, myocardial proteasome activities were significantly lower whereas total ubiquitin conjugates and GFPdgn protein levels were markedly higher in all regions of the I/R hearts than the sham controls, indicative of proteasome functional insufficiency. CR-PSMI in intact mice was achieved by transgenic (tg) overexpression of a peptidase-disabled mouse β5 subunit (T60A-β5) driven by an attenuated mouse mhc6 promoter. Overexpressed T60A-β5 can replace endogenous β5 and inhibits proteasome chymotrypsin-like activities in the heart. Mice with moderate CR-PSMI showed no abnormalities at the baseline but displayed markedly more pronounced structural and functional damage during I/R, compared with non-tg littermates. The exacerbation of I/R injury by moderate CR-PSMI was associated with significant increases in the protein level of PTEN and protein kinase Cδ (PKCδ), decreased Akt activation, and reduced PKCε.
Myocardial I/R causes proteasome functional insufficiency in cardiomyocytes and moderate CR-PSMI augments PTEN and PKCδ, suppresses Akt and PKCε, increases cardiomyocyte apoptosis, and aggravates I/R injury in mice.
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ABSTRACT: Myocardial ischemia often results in damaged heart structure and function, which can be restored through ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) in most cases. However, I/R can exacerbate myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI). Luteolin, a widely distributed flavonoid, a member of a group of naturally occurring polyphenolic compounds found in many fruits, vegetables and medicinal herbs, has been reported to exhibit anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic activities. In recent years, luteolin has been shown to play an important role in the cardioprotection of IRI. However, its role and mechanism in cardioprotection against IRI has not been clearly elucidated with respect to the apoptosis pathway. The purpose of this paper is to review luteolin's anti-apoptotic role and mechanism following I/R in rats, and indicate luteolin as a potential candidate for preventing and treating cardiovascular diseases.Nutrients 01/2012; 4(12):2008-19. · 2.07 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) is critical for the regulation of many intracellular processes necessary for cell function and survival. The absolute requirement of the UPS for the maintenance of protein homeostasis and thereby for the regulation of protein quality control is reflected by the fact that deviation of proteasome function from the norm was reported in cardiovascular pathologies. Inflammation is a major factor contributing to cardiac pathology. Herein, cytokines induce protein translation and the production of free radicals, thereby challenging the cellular protein equilibrium. Here, we discuss current knowledge on the mechanisms of UPS-functional adaptation in response to oxidative stress in cardiac inflammation. The increasing pool of oxidant-damaged degradation-prone proteins in cardiac pathology accounts for the need for enhanced protein turnover by the UPS. This process is accomplished by an up-regulation of the ubiquitylation machinery and the induction of immunoproteasomes. Thereby, the inflamed heart muscle is cleared from accumulating misfolded proteins. Current advances on immunoproteasome-specific inhibitors in this field question the impact of the proteasome as a therapeutic target in heart failure.Frontiers in Physiology 01/2013; 4:42.