Atrazine promotes biochemical changes and DNA damage in a Neotropical fish species.
ABSTRACT The effects of Atrazine, an herbicide used worldwide and considered as a potential contaminant in aquatic environments, were assessed on the Neotropical fish Prochilodus lineatus acutely (24 and 48h) exposed to 2 or 10μgL(-1) of atrazine by using a set of biochemical and genetic biomarkers. The following parameters were measured in the liver: activity of the biotransformation enzymes ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) and glutathione S transferase (GST), antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), content of reduced glutathione (GSH), generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and occurrence of lipid peroxidation (LPO); in brain and muscle the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and DNA damage (comet assay) on erythrocytes, gills and liver cells. A general decreasing trend on the biotransformation and antioxidant enzymes was observed in the liver of P. lineatus exposed to atrazine; except for GR, all the other antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT and GPx) and biotransformation enzymes (EROD and GST) showed inhibited activity. Changes in muscle or brain AChE were not detected. DNA damage was observed in the different cell types of fish exposed to the herbicide, and it was probably not from oxidative origin, since no increase in ROS generation and LPO was detected in the liver. These results show that atrazine behaves as enzyme inhibitor, impairing hepatic metabolism, and produces genotoxic damage to different cell types of P. lineatus.
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ABSTRACT: Since generative tissues are a link between the generations, the detection of genetic damage in testis and ovary of fish is conductive to elucidating the relationship between genotoxicity and impairment of reproduction. In the current study, exposure of zebrafish to methyl methanesulfonate over two weeks caused concentration dependent genotoxic effects in gonads, liver and gills using the alkaline comet assay. Likewise, the micronucleus frequency was elevated in all of these organs. Thus, the comet assay and the micronucleus test proved appropriate for the detection of genotoxicity in primary male and female gonad cells and histological sections of the gonads from zebrafish, respectively.Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 04/2013; · 1.11 Impact Factor