Atrazine promotes biochemical changes and DNA damage in a Neotropical fish species

Department of Physiological Sciences, Londrina State University, P.B. 6001, 86051-990 Londrina, Paraná, Brazil.
Chemosphere (Impact Factor: 3.34). 06/2012; 89(9):1118-25. DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2012.05.096
Source: PubMed


The effects of Atrazine, an herbicide used worldwide and considered as a potential contaminant in aquatic environments, were assessed on the Neotropical fish Prochilodus lineatus acutely (24 and 48h) exposed to 2 or 10μgL(-1) of atrazine by using a set of biochemical and genetic biomarkers. The following parameters were measured in the liver: activity of the biotransformation enzymes ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) and glutathione S transferase (GST), antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), content of reduced glutathione (GSH), generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and occurrence of lipid peroxidation (LPO); in brain and muscle the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and DNA damage (comet assay) on erythrocytes, gills and liver cells. A general decreasing trend on the biotransformation and antioxidant enzymes was observed in the liver of P. lineatus exposed to atrazine; except for GR, all the other antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT and GPx) and biotransformation enzymes (EROD and GST) showed inhibited activity. Changes in muscle or brain AChE were not detected. DNA damage was observed in the different cell types of fish exposed to the herbicide, and it was probably not from oxidative origin, since no increase in ROS generation and LPO was detected in the liver. These results show that atrazine behaves as enzyme inhibitor, impairing hepatic metabolism, and produces genotoxic damage to different cell types of P. lineatus.

Download full-text


Available from: Claudia Bueno dos Reis Martinez, Jun 21, 2014
1 Follower
37 Reads
  • Source
    • "(2010) civa bileşiklerine maruz kalmanın Altınbaş Kefal'de (Liza aurata) antioksidan aktivitesinin azaldığını belirlemişlerdir. Atrazinin, neotropikal balık türlerinde akut etkisinin belirlendiği bir çalışmada farklı hücre tiplerinde herbisitin antioksidan enzimleri inhibe ettiği gözlenmiştir (Santos ve Martinez, 2012). Kızılgöz balığı (Rutilus rutilus) ile yapılan bir araştırmada, diazonin maddesi farklı süre ve dozlarda balıklara uygulanmıştır. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Aquatic organisms are exposed to significant amounts of heavy metals and pesticides due to many anthropogenic activities, particularly industrial and agricultural. Heavy metal and pesticide accumulation may cause an increase in Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) leading to oxidative stress in fish. These environmental toxicants can promote oxidative damage by directly increasing the cellular concentration of ROS and by reducing the cellular antioxidant capacity. This paper reviews the studies on effects of heavy metals and pesticides exposure on the oxidative stress biomarkers and antioxidant defenses of fish.
  • Source
    • "The herbicidal activity of triazines is believed to be mediated by inhibition of photosynthesis (Das et al., 2000) and intensification of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production through its interference with photosystem-II (Pauli et al., 1990; Nemat and Hassan, 2006). In fish, the triazine pesticides affect hematological and histopathological parameters (Velisek et al., 2008, 2012; Oropesa et al., 2009), stimulate DNA damage (Santos and Martinez, 2012), immune response (Fatima et al., 2007 "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Molecular mechanisms of toxicity by the metribuzin-containing herbicide Sencor to living organisms, particularly fish, have not yet been extensively investigated. In the present work, we studied the effects of 96 h exposure to 7.14, 35.7, or 71.4 mg L−1 of Sencor (corresponding to 5, 25, or 50 mg L−1 of its herbicidal component metribuzin) on goldfish (Carassius auratus L.), examining the histology, levels of oxidative stress markers, and activities of antioxidant and related enzymes in kidney as well as hematological parameters and leukocyte profiles in blood. The treatment induced various histopathological changes in goldfish kidney, such as hypertrophy of intertubular hematopoietic tissue, small and multiple hemorrhages, glomerular shrinkage, a decrease in space between glomerulus and Bowman's capsule, degeneration and necrosis of the tubular epithelium. Sencor exposure also decreased activities of selected enzymes in kidney; activities of catalase decreased by 31–34%, glutathione peroxidase by 14–33%, glutathione reductase by 17–25%, and acetylcholinesterase by 31%. However, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and lactate dehydrogenase activities increased by 25–30% and 22% in kidney after treatment with 7.14 or 35.7 mg L−1 and 71.4 mg L−1 Sencor, respectively. Kidney levels of protein carbonyls increased by 177% after exposure to 35.7 mg L−1 of Sencor indicating extensive damage to proteins. Lipid peroxide concentrations also increased by 25% after exposure to 7.14 mg L−1 of Sencor, but levels were reduced by 42% in the 71.4 mg L−1 exposure group. The data indicate that induction of oxidative stress is one of the mechanisms responsible for Sencor toxicity to fish.
    Aquatic Toxicology 10/2014; 155:181–189. DOI:10.1016/j.aquatox.2014.06.020 · 3.45 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "The induction of this enzyme by contaminants is commonly measured by the activity of ethoxyresorufin- O-deethylase (EROD) (Whyte et al., 2000). Some studies have already shown changes in EROD activity after exposure of fish to herbicides (Santos and Martinez, 2012). Along the biotransformation process, the enzyme glutathione-S-transferase (GST) participates in the detoxification of lipophilic contaminants by catalyzing conjugation reactions with endogenous substrates which enhance the water solubility of contaminants, facilitating their elimination (Stegeman et al., 1992). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The surfactant polyoxyethylene amine (POEA) is added to several formulations of glyphosate herbicides that are widely used in agriculture and can contaminate aquatic ecosystems. In the present study, an integrated approach examining genotoxic, biochemical and physiological parameters was employed to evaluate acute effects of POEA on the Neotropical fish Prochilodus lineatus. Juvenile fish were exposed to 0.15mg.L(-1) (POEA 1), 0.75mg.L(-1) (POEA 2) and 1.5mg.L(-1) (POEA 3) of POEA or only water (CTR), and after 24h exposure samples of blood and liver were taken. Compared with CTR, fish exposed to POEA2 and POEA3 showed in the liver increased activity of 7 ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase and increased content of glutathione, whereas the activity of glutathione-S-transferase was diminished. On the other hand, fish of the group POEA 1 showed an increase in the activity of superoxide dismutase and in the occurrence of lipid peroxidation. Fish exposed to POEA 3 presented increased hepatic activity of glutathione peroxidase and reduced plasma cortisol. The exposure to POEA at all concentrations tested caused an increase in plasma lactate and a decrease in the hepatic activity of catalase and in the number of red blood cells and in hemoglobin content. The comet assay used for analyzing DNA damage in blood cells indicated the genotoxicity of the surfactant at all concentrations tested. Taking together these results show that POEA can cause effects at various levels, such as hemolysis, DNA damage and lipid peroxidation, which are directly related to an imbalance in the redox state of the fish.
    Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C Toxicology & Pharmacology 06/2014; 165. DOI:10.1016/j.cbpc.2014.06.003 · 2.30 Impact Factor
Show more