Atrazine promotes biochemical changes and DNA damage in a Neotropical fish species

Department of Physiological Sciences, Londrina State University, P.B. 6001, 86051-990 Londrina, Paraná, Brazil.
Chemosphere (Impact Factor: 3.5). 06/2012; 89(9):1118-25. DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2012.05.096
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The effects of Atrazine, an herbicide used worldwide and considered as a potential contaminant in aquatic environments, were assessed on the Neotropical fish Prochilodus lineatus acutely (24 and 48h) exposed to 2 or 10μgL(-1) of atrazine by using a set of biochemical and genetic biomarkers. The following parameters were measured in the liver: activity of the biotransformation enzymes ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) and glutathione S transferase (GST), antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), content of reduced glutathione (GSH), generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and occurrence of lipid peroxidation (LPO); in brain and muscle the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and DNA damage (comet assay) on erythrocytes, gills and liver cells. A general decreasing trend on the biotransformation and antioxidant enzymes was observed in the liver of P. lineatus exposed to atrazine; except for GR, all the other antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT and GPx) and biotransformation enzymes (EROD and GST) showed inhibited activity. Changes in muscle or brain AChE were not detected. DNA damage was observed in the different cell types of fish exposed to the herbicide, and it was probably not from oxidative origin, since no increase in ROS generation and LPO was detected in the liver. These results show that atrazine behaves as enzyme inhibitor, impairing hepatic metabolism, and produces genotoxic damage to different cell types of P. lineatus.

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