Atrazine promotes biochemical changes and DNA damage in a Neotropical fish species

Department of Physiological Sciences, Londrina State University, P.B. 6001, 86051-990 Londrina, Paraná, Brazil.
Chemosphere (Impact Factor: 3.34). 06/2012; 89(9):1118-25. DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2012.05.096
Source: PubMed


The effects of Atrazine, an herbicide used worldwide and considered as a potential contaminant in aquatic environments, were assessed on the Neotropical fish Prochilodus lineatus acutely (24 and 48h) exposed to 2 or 10μgL(-1) of atrazine by using a set of biochemical and genetic biomarkers. The following parameters were measured in the liver: activity of the biotransformation enzymes ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) and glutathione S transferase (GST), antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), content of reduced glutathione (GSH), generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and occurrence of lipid peroxidation (LPO); in brain and muscle the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and DNA damage (comet assay) on erythrocytes, gills and liver cells. A general decreasing trend on the biotransformation and antioxidant enzymes was observed in the liver of P. lineatus exposed to atrazine; except for GR, all the other antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT and GPx) and biotransformation enzymes (EROD and GST) showed inhibited activity. Changes in muscle or brain AChE were not detected. DNA damage was observed in the different cell types of fish exposed to the herbicide, and it was probably not from oxidative origin, since no increase in ROS generation and LPO was detected in the liver. These results show that atrazine behaves as enzyme inhibitor, impairing hepatic metabolism, and produces genotoxic damage to different cell types of P. lineatus.

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Available from: Claudia Bueno dos Reis Martinez, Jun 21, 2014
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    • "For this reason, atrazine has been banned in European Union (Bethsass and Colangelo, 2006). Many studies have indicated the deleterious effects of atrazine on animal and plant species in aquatic ecosystems (Dalton and Boutin, 2010; Brain et al., 2012; Santos and Martinez, 2012; Flores et al., 2013), as well as on soil microbiota (Chen et al., 2015) and human health (Sathiakumar et al., 2011). Even in non-target tolerant plant species, atrazine accumulation has been shown to cause toxic responses, inducing oxidative stress and negatively affecting crop growth and productivity (Alla and Hassan, 2006; Li et al., 2012). "
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    ABSTRACT: Poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) nanocapsules have been used as a carrier system for the herbicide atrazine, which is commonly applied to maize. We demonstrated previously that these atrazine containing polymeric nanocapsules were 10-fold more effective in the control of mustard plants (a target species), as compared to a commercial atrazine formulation. Since atrazine can have adverse effects on non-target crops, here we analyzed the effect of encapsulated atrazine on growth, physiological and oxidative stress parameters of soil-grown maize plants (Zea mays L.). One day after the post-emergence treatment with PCL nanocapsules containing atrazine (1 mg mL(-1)), maize plants presented 15 and 21% decreases in maximum quantum yield of photosystem II (PSII) and in net CO2 assimilation rate, respectively, as compared to water-sprayed plants. The same treatment led to a 1.8-fold increase in leaf lipid peroxidation in comparison with control plants. However, all of these parameters were unaffected 4 and 8 days after the application of encapsulated atrazine. These results suggested that the negative effects of atrazine were transient, probably due to the ability of maize plants to detoxify the herbicide. When encapsulated atrazine was applied at a 10-fold lower concentration (0.1 mg mL(-1)), a dosage that is still effective for weed control, no effects were detected even shortly after application. Regardless of the herbicide concentration, neither pre- nor post-emergence treatment with the PCL nanocapsules carrying atrazine resulted in the development of any macroscopic symptoms in maize leaves, and there were no impacts on shoot growth. Additionally, no effects were observed when plants were sprayed with PCL nanocapsules without atrazine. Overall, these results suggested that the use of PCL nanocapsules containing atrazine did not lead to persistent side effects in maize plants, and that the technique could offer a safe tool for weed control without affecting crop growth.
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    • "(2010) civa bileşiklerine maruz kalmanın Altınbaş Kefal'de (Liza aurata) antioksidan aktivitesinin azaldığını belirlemişlerdir. Atrazinin, neotropikal balık türlerinde akut etkisinin belirlendiği bir çalışmada farklı hücre tiplerinde herbisitin antioksidan enzimleri inhibe ettiği gözlenmiştir (Santos ve Martinez, 2012). Kızılgöz balığı (Rutilus rutilus) ile yapılan bir araştırmada, diazonin maddesi farklı süre ve dozlarda balıklara uygulanmıştır. "
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    • "The herbicidal activity of triazines is believed to be mediated by inhibition of photosynthesis (Das et al., 2000) and intensification of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production through its interference with photosystem-II (Pauli et al., 1990; Nemat and Hassan, 2006). In fish, the triazine pesticides affect hematological and histopathological parameters (Velisek et al., 2008, 2012; Oropesa et al., 2009), stimulate DNA damage (Santos and Martinez, 2012), immune response (Fatima et al., 2007 "
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