The fabrication of tubular rolled-up optofluidic ring resonators (RU-OFRRs) based on glass (SiO(2)) material with high quality factors is reported. A novel methodology combining lab-on-a-chip fabrication methods and rolled-up nanotech is presented for the fabrication of fully integrated tubular optofluidic sensors. The microfluidic integration of several RU-OFRRs on one chip is solved by enclosing the microtubes with a patterned robust SU-8 polymeric matrix. A viewport on each microtube enables exact excitation and monitoring of whispering gallery modes with a photoluminescence spectroscopy system under constant ambient conditions, while exchanging the content of the RU-OFRR with liquids of different refractive indices. The refractrometric sensor capabilities are investigated regarding signal stability, sensitivity and reliability. The sensitivity of the integrated RU-OFRR, which is the response of the modes to the change in refractive index of the liquid, is up to 880 nm/refractive index units (RIU).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tubular oxide optical microcavities with thin walls (< 100 nm) have been fabricated by releasing pre-stressed Y<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>/ZrO<sub>2</sub> bi-layered nanomembranes. Optical characterization demonstrates strong whispering gallery modes with a high quality-factor and fine structures in the visible range, which are due to their high-index-contrast property (high refractive index in thin walls). Moreover, the strong axial light confinement observed in rolled-up circular nanomembranes well agrees with our theoretical calculation by using Mie scattering theory. Novel material design and superior optical resonant properties in such self-rolled micro-tubular cavities promise many potential applications e.g. in optofluidic sensing and lasing.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Spatially localized high order axial resonant modes are observed in a SiO/SiO2-based microtube cavity rolled-up from a prestrained nanomembrane. A diameter variation of the tube structure is revealed which provides localized axial confinement. Optofluidic detection is demonstrated by filling the tube core with salt solution and subsequently detecting the shifts of spectral mode positions and axial mode spacings. A sensing methodology is proposed by monitoring axial mode spacing changes. (C) 2012 American Institute of Physics. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4758992]
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Compact rolled-up Co-Cu nanomembranes of high quality with different numbers of windings are realized by strain engineering. A profound analysis of magnetoresistance (MR) is performed for tubes with a single winding and a varied number of Co-Cu bilayers in the stack. Rolled-up nanomembranes with up to 12 Co-Cu bilayers are successfully fabricated by tailoring the strain state of the Cr bottom layer. By carrying out an angular dependent study, we ruled out the contribution from anisotropic MR and confirm that rolled-up Co-Cu multilayers exhibit giant magnetoresistance (GMR). No significant difference of MR is found for a single wound tube compared with planar devices. In contrast, MR in tubes with multiple windings is increased at low deposition rates of the Cr bottom layer, whereas the effect is not observable at higher rates, suggesting that interface roughness plays an important role in determining the GMR effect of the rolled-up nanomembranes. Furthermore, besides a linear increase of the MR with the number of windings, the self-rolling of nanomembranes substantially reduces the device footprint area.
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