Menhaden Oil Decreases High-Fat Diet-Induced Markers of Hepatic Damage, Steatosis, Inflammation, and Fibrosis in Obese Ldlr(-/-) Mice

School of Biological and Population Health Sciences and the Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, USA.
Journal of Nutrition (Impact Factor: 3.88). 06/2012; 142(8):1495-503. DOI: 10.3945/jn.112.158865
Source: PubMed


The frequency of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) has increased in parallel with obesity in the United States. NASH is progressive and characterized by hepatic damage, inflammation, fibrosis, and oxidative stress. Because C20-22 (n-3) PUFA are established regulators of lipid metabolism and inflammation, we tested the hypothesis that C20-22 (n-3) PUFA in menhaden oil (MO) prevent high-fat (HF) diet-induced fatty liver disease in mice. Wild-type (WT) and Ldlr(-/-) C57BL/6J mice were fed the following diets for 12 wk: nonpurified (NP), HF with lard (60% of energy from fat), HF-high-cholesterol with olive oil (HFHC-OO; 54.4% of energy from fat, 0.5% cholesterol), or HFHC-OO supplemented with MO (HFHC-MO). When compared with the NP diet, the HF and HFHC-OO diets induced hepatosteatosis and hepatic damage [elevated plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferases] and elevated hepatic expression of markers of inflammation (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1), fibrosis (procollagen 1α1), and oxidative stress (heme oxygenase-1) (P ≤ 0.05). Hepatic damage (i.e., ALT) correlated (r = 0.74, P < 0.05) with quantitatively higher (>140%, P < 0.05) hepatic cholesterol in Ldlr(-/-) mice fed the HFHC-OO diet than WT mice fed the HF or HFHC-OO diets. Plasma and hepatic markers of liver damage, steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis, but not oxidative stress, were lower in WT and Ldlr(-/-) mice fed the HFHC-MO diet compared with the HFHC-OO diet (P < 0.05). In conclusion, MO [C20-22 (n-3) PUFA at 2% of energy] decreases many, but not all, HF diet-induced markers of fatty liver disease in mice.

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    • "A detailed analysis and description of the diets was reported previously [8]. At the end of the 16 week feeding period, all mice were fasted overnight (18:00 to 08:00 the next day) then euthanized (isoflurane anesthesia and exsanguination) at 08:00 for the collection of blood and liver [17]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a progressive form of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and a risk factor for cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma and liver failure. Previously, we reported that dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6,n-3) was more effective than eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5,n-3) at reversing western diet (WD) induced NASH in LDLR(-/-) mice. Using livers from our previous study, we carried out a global non-targeted metabolomic approach to quantify diet-induced changes in hepatic metabolism. Livers from WD + olive oil (WD + O)-fed mice displayed histological and gene expression features consistent with NASH. The metabolomic analysis of 320 metabolites established that the WD and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) supplementation had broad effects on all major metabolic pathways. Livers from WD + O-fed mice were enriched in saturated (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), palmitoyl-sphingomyelin, cholesterol, n-6 PUFA, n-6 PUFA-containing phosphoglycerolipids, n-6 PUFA-derived oxidized lipids (12-HETE) and depleted of C20-22 n-3 PUFA-containing phosphoglycerolipids, C20-22 n-3 PUFA-derived oxidized lipids (18-HEPE, 17,18-DiHETE) and S-lactoylglutathione, a methylglyoxal detoxification product. WD + DHA was more effective than WD + EPA at attenuating WD + O-induced changes in NASH gene expression markers, n-6 PUFA and oxidized lipids, citrate and S-lactosyl glutathione. Diet-induced changes in hepatic MUFA and sphingolipid content were associated with changes in expression of enzymes involved in MUFA and sphingolipid synthesis. Changes in hepatic oxidized fatty acids and S-lactoylglutathione, however, correlated with hepatic n-3 and n-6 C20-22 PUFA content. Hepatic C20-22 n-3 PUFA content was inversely associated with hepatic α-tocopherol and ascorbate content and positively associated with urinary F2- and F3-isoprostanes, revealing diet effects on whole body oxidative stress. DHA regulation of hepatic SFA, MUFA, PUFA, sphingomyelin, PUFA-derived oxidized lipids and S-lactoylglutathione may explain the protective effects of DHA against WD-induced NASH in LDLR(-/-) mice.
    PLoS ONE 12/2013; 8(12):e83756. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0083756 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "The content of bioactive n-3 PUFA in the HF-FO supplemented diet was 3.6% kcal as DHA and EPA combined, which is consistent with the level consumed by the Greenland Inuit [38]. The diets were modeled after the commercially available high fat and low fat formulations that have been used elsewhere to produce diet-induced obesity [39], [40]. The diet composition is described in Table S1. "
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    ABSTRACT: Clinical and experimental evidence suggests that obesity-associated inflammation increases disease activity during colitis, attributed in part to the effects of Th17 cells. Using a model of concurrent obesity and colitis, we monitored changes in critical immune cell subsets and inflammatory biomarker expression in three key tissues: visceral adipose tissue, colon (local inflammatory site) and spleen (systemic inflammatory site), and we hypothesized that n-3 PUFA would reduce the percentage of inflammatory immune cell subsets and suppress inflammatory gene expression, thereby improving the disease phenotype. Obesity was induced in C57BL/6 mice by feeding a high fat (HF) diet (59.2% kcal) alone or an isocaloric HF diet supplemented with fish oil (HF-FO) for 12 weeks. Colitis was induced via a 2.5% trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) enema. The HF-FO diet improved the obese phenotype by reducing i) serum hormone concentrations (leptin and resistin), ii) adipose tissue mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines (MCP-1, IFNγ, IL-6, IL17F and IL-21) and iii) total (F4/80(+) CD11b(+)) and inflammatory adipose tissue M1 (F4/80(+) CD11c(+)) macrophage content compared to HF (P<0.05). In addition, the HF-FO diet reduced both colitis-associated disease severity and colonic mRNA expression of the Th17 cell master transcription factor (RORγτ) and critical cytokines (IL-6, IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-21, IL-23 and IFNγ) versus HF (P<0.05). Compared to HF, the percentage of both splenic Th17 and Th1 cells were reduced by the HF-FO group (P<0.05). Under ex vivo polarizing conditions, the percentage of HF-FO derived CD4(+) T cells that reached Th17 cell effector status was suppressed (P = 0.05). Collectively, these results indicate that n-3 PUFA suppress Th1/Th17 cells and inflammatory macrophage subsets and reconfigure the inflammatory gene expression profile in diverse tissue sites in obese mice following the induction of colitis.
    PLoS ONE 11/2012; 7(11):e49739. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0049739 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Epidemiological studies on Greenland Inuits in the 1970s and subsequent human studies have established an inverse relationship between the ingestion of omega-3 fatty acids [C20-22 omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)], blood levels of C20-22 omega-3 PUFA and mortality associated with cardiovascular disease [CVD]. C20-22 omega-3 PUFA have pleiotropic effects on cell function and regulate multiple pathways controlling blood lipids, inflammatory factors and cellular events in cardiomyocytes and vascular endothelial cells. The hypolipemic, anti-inflammatory, anti-arrhythmic properties of these fatty acids confer cardioprotection. Accordingly, national heart associations and government agencies have recommended increased consumption of fatty fish or omega-3 PUFA supplements to prevent CVD. In addition to fatty fish, additional sources of omega-3 PUFA are available from plants, algae and yeast. A key question examined in this review is whether non-fish sources of omega-3 PUFA are as effective as fatty fish-derived C20-22 omega-3 PUFA at managing risk factors linked to CVD. We have focused on omega-3 PUFA metabolism and the capacity of omega-3 PUFA supplements to regulate key cellular events linked to CVD. The outcome of our analysis reveals that non-fish sources of omega-3 PUFA vary in their capacity to regulate blood levels of C20-22 omega-3 PUFA and CVD risk factors.
    The Journal of Lipid Research 08/2012; 53(12). DOI:10.1194/jlr.R027904 · 4.42 Impact Factor
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