Increased fasting serum glucose concentration is associated with adverse knee structural changes in adults with no knee symptoms and diabetes
ABSTRACT There is evidence to suggest that elevated glucose concentration and clinical diabetes are associated with osteoarthritis (OA). However, the association may be confounded by knee symptoms, concomitant treatment for OA or diabetes. We performed a longitudinal cohort study to examine the relationship between serum glucose concentration and knee structure in adults with no knee symptoms or diabetes.
179 participants who had fasting serum glucose measurements at 1990-4, with no knee symptoms or diabetes (physician-diagnosed or fasting serum glucose ≥7 mmol/L), underwent knee MRI in 2003-4 and 2 years later. Body mass index was measured at 1990-4 and 2003-4. Cartilage volume and bone marrow lesions were determined from MRI at 2003-4 and 2006-7.
Fasting serum glucose concentration was positively associated with the rate of tibial cartilage volume loss over 2 years in women (B=44.2mm(3), 95% CI 4.6, 83.8) but not in men (B=6.0mm(3), 95% CI -68.5, 80.6). Fasting serum glucose concentration was positively associated with incident bone marrow lesions in women (OR=5.76, 95% CI 1.06, 31.21) but not in men (OR=0.11, 95% CI 0.01, 1.79) with significant gender difference (p=0.001 for interaction).
Increased fasting serum glucose concentration in a non-diabetic population was associated with adverse structural changes at the knee in women but not in men, suggesting that there may be susceptibility to knee structural change even below the arbitrary "diabetic range" of serum glucose levels. The sex differences warrant further investigation as this may be one mechanism underlying the sex difference in knee OA.
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ABSTRACT: Diabetes mellitus is an enormous menace to public health globally. This chronic disease of metabolism will adversely affect the skeleton if not controlled. Both type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are associated with an increased risk of osteoporosis and fragility fractures. Bone mineral density is reduced in T1DM, whereas patients with T2DM have normal or slightly higher bone density, suggesting impaired bone quality is involved. Detrimental effects of T1DM on the skeleton are more severe than T2DM, probably because of the lack of osteo-anabolic effects of insulin and other pancreatic hormones. In both T1DM and T2DM, low bone quality could be caused by various means, including but not limited to hyperglycemia, accumulation of advanced glycosylation end products (AGEs), decreased serum levels of osteocalcin and parathyroid hormone. Risk for osteoarthritis is also elevated in diabetic population. How diabetes accelerates the deterioration of cartilage remains largely unknown. Hyperglycemia and glucose derived AGEs could contribute to the development of osteoarthritis. Moreover, it is recognized that oral antidiabetic medicines affect bone metabolism and turnover as well. Insulin is shown to have anabolic effects on bone and hyperinsulinemia may help to explain the slightly higher bone density in patients with T2DM. Thiazolidinediones can promote bone loss and osteoporotic fractures by suppressing osteoblastogenesis and enhancing osteoclastogenesis. Metformin favors bone formation by stimulating osteoblast differentiation and protecting them against diabetic conditions such as hyperglycemia. Better knowledge of how diabetic conditions and its treatments influence skeletal tissues is in great need in view of the growing and aging population of patients with diabetes mellitus.02/2013; DOI:10.1007/s11684-013-0243-9
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ABSTRACT: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common chronic joint disorder with a multifactorial etiology including genetic and environmental factors. Metabolic triggered inflammation, induced by nutrient overload and metabolic surplus, consists of components such as obesity, pro-inflammatory cytokines and adipokines, abnormal metabolites, acute phase proteins, vitamin D deficiency, and deregulated microRNAs that may play a role in OA pathophysiology. Obesity-related metabolic factors, especially adipokines, contribute to OA development by inducing pro-inflammatory cytokines and degradative enzymes, leading to cartilage matrix impairment and subchondral bone remodeling. Ectopic metabolite deposition and low-grade systemic inflammation can contribute to a toxic internal environment that exacerbates OA. Complement components highly expressed in osteoarthritic joints have also been proposed as causative factors. Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with obesity and is implicated to be associated with cartilage loss in OA. Metabolic microRNAs may explain the inflammatory link between obesity and OA. Therapies targeting metabolic-triggered inflammation and its components are anticipated to have potential for the treatment of OA.Osteoarthritis and Cartilage 10/2014; 23(1). DOI:10.1016/j.joca.2014.10.002 · 4.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Introduction: There is increasing evidence to suggest that bone marrow lesions (BMLs) play a key role in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA). However, there is a lack of long term data. The aim of this study was to describe the natural history of knee BMLs, their association with knee pain and examine predictors of BML change over eight years. Methods: A total of 198 subjects (109 adult offspring of subjects who had a knee replacement and 89 community-based controls) were studied. Knee pain and BML size were assessed at two and ten year visits. Results: At the two year visit, 64% of participants (n = 127) had 229 BMLs (34% patella, 26% femoral and 40% tibial). Over eight years, 24% (55/229) increased in size, 55% (125/229) remained stable and 21% (49/229) decreased in size or resolved completely. Of the participants without BMLs at baseline, 52% (37/71) developed incident BMLs. After adjusting for confounders, eight year change in total BML size was associated with change in knee pain in offspring (beta = 2.50, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.96 to 4.05) but not controls. This association was stronger in males. Incident BMLs were associated with increase in pain (beta = 3.60, 95% CI 1.14 to 6.05). Body mass index (BMI) and strenuous activity (but not radiographic osteoarthritis or smoking) were associated with an increase in BML size. Conclusion: In this midlife cohort, the proportion of BMLs increasing in size was similar to those decreasing in size with the majority remaining stable. Change in BMLs was predicted by BMI and strenuous activity. An increase in BML size or a new BML resulted in an increase in pain especially in males and those with a family history of OA.Arthritis Research & Therapy 07/2014; 16(4):R149. DOI:10.1186/ar4611 · 4.12 Impact Factor