Vascular Risk Factors and Cardiovascular Outcomes in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative
ABSTRACT Vascular disease and medical factors are associated with cognitive decline and cardiovascular events. We examined the association between vascular risk factors and events in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative cohort.
The association between vascular risk factors and cardiovascular events in a cohort of 810 participants, including 400 with mild cognitive impairment, 184 with Alzheimer's, and 226 controls was investigated using a longitudinal hazard model.
There were 31 events including 11 strokes, 7 myocardial infarctions, 5 revascularizations, and 8 deaths during an average follow-up of 31 months. Longitudinal cardiovascular event rates were low and similar between diagnostic groups.
All baseline vascular risk factors that were expected to be associated with longitudinal cardiovascular events were, or were trending toward, associating with cardiovascular events except atrial fibrillation, depression, and apolipoprotein E genotype. Despite differences in baseline vascular risk factors, longitudinal cardiovascular event rates were similar between diagnostic groups.
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ABSTRACT: beta-Amyloid (A beta) is deposited in neurons and vascular cells of the brain and is characterized as a pathologic feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recently studies have reported that there is an association between cardiovascular risk factors and AD, however the mechanism of this association is still uncertain. In this study we observed A beta had an effect on cardiovascular cells. We represent as a major discovery that A beta(25-35) had toxicity on isolated rat cardiac myocytes by impacting the cytoskeleton assembly and causing ER stress, ultimately contributing to the apoptosis of the myocytes. Importantly, the activation of ER stress and subsequent cellular dysfunction and apoptosis by A beta(25-35) was regulated by the MAPK pathway, which could be prevented by inhibition of p38 via pharmacological inhibitors. It was noteworthy that A beta(25-35) played a critical role in cardiac myocytes, suggesting that Alzheimer's disease (AD) had a relation with the heart and understanding of these associations in future will help search for effective treatment strategies.Molecules 08/2014; 19(8):12242-12257. DOI:10.3390/molecules190812242 · 2.42 Impact Factor