New farnesyltransferase inhibitors in the phenothiazine series
ABSTRACT The biological screening of the chemical library of our Organic Chemistry Department, carried out on an automated fluorescence-based FTase assay, allowed us to discover that a phenothiazine derivative (1d) was an inhibitor of farnesyltransferase. Three new series of human farnesyltransferase inhibitors, based on a phenothiazine scaffold, were synthesized with protein farnesyltransferase inhibition potencies in the low micromolar range. Ester derivative 9d was the most active compound in these series. Four synthesized compounds were evaluated for their antiproliferative activity on a NCI-60 cancer cell line panel. The modest results obtained in this preliminary investigation showed that mixing the phenothiazine and the 1,2,3-triazole motif in the structure of a single compound can lead to new scaffolds in the field of farnesyltransferase inhibitors.
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ABSTRACT: Recently, the bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. has re-emerged as a serious and growing problem in many parts of the world. Presence of resistant bed bugs and the difficulty to eliminate them has renewed interest in alternative control tactics. Similar to other haematophagous arthropods, bed bugs rely on their olfactory system to detect semiochemicals in the environment. Previous studies have morphologically characterized olfactory organs of bed bugs' antenna and have physiologically evaluated the responses of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) to host-derived chemicals. To date, odorant binding proteins (OBPs) and odorant receptors (ORs) associated with these olfaction processes have not been studied in bed bugs. Chemoreception in insects requires formation of heteromeric complexes of ORs and a universal OR coreceptor (Orco). Orco is the constant chain of every odorant receptor in insects and is critical for insect olfaction but does not directly bind to odorants. Orco agonists and antagonists have been suggested as high-value targets for the development of novel insect repellents. In this study, we have performed RNAseq of bed bug sensory organs and identified several odorant receptors as well as Orco. We characterized Orco expression and investigated the effect of chemicals targeting Orco on bed bug behavior and reproduction. We have identified partial cDNAs of six C. lectularius OBPs and 16 ORs. Full length bed bug Orco was cloned and sequenced. Orco is widely expressed in different parts of the bed bug including OR neurons and spermatozoa. Treatment of bed bugs with the agonist VUAA1 changed bed bug pheromone-induced aggregation behavior and inactivated spermatozoa. We have described and characterized for the first time OBPs, ORs and Orco in bed bugs. Given the importance of these molecules in chemoreception of this insect they are interesting targets for the development of novel insect behavior modifiers.PLoS ONE 11/2014; 9(11):e113692. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0113692 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Novel phenothiazine derivatives bearing an amino acid residue were synthesized via peptide chemistry, and evaluated for their inhibitory potential on human farnesyltransferase. The phenothiazine unit proved to be an important bulky unit in the structure of the synthesized inhibitors. Propargyl ester 20 bearing a tyrosine residue exhibited the best biological potential in vitro in the present study. Further syntheses and biological evaluation of phenothiazine derivatives are necessary in order to gain a full view of SAR in this family of farnesyltransferase inhibitors.Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters 05/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.bmcl.2014.04.102 · 2.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Phenothiazinyl units have been covalently attached to graphene oxide (GO) by nitrene insertion onto CCarbon 08/2014; 74:113–119. DOI:10.1016/j.carbon.2014.03.011 · 6.16 Impact Factor