Autologous stem cell transplant recipients tolerate haploidentical related-donor natural killer cell-enriched infusions.
ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: In the setting of allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT), infusing natural killer (NK) cells from a major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-mismatched donor can mediate an antileukemic effect. The graft-versus-tumor effect after autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) may result in less disease relapse. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We performed a Phase I clinical trial to assess the safety and feasibility of infusing distantly processed donor NK-enriched mononuclear cell (NK-MNC) infusions from a MHC haplotype-mismatched (haploidentical) donor to patients who recently underwent ASCT for a hematologic malignancy. On Day 1, peripheral blood MNCs were obtained by steady-state leukapheresis and sent from Boston to the Production Assistance for Cellular Therapies (PACT) facility at the University of Minnesota, where immunomagnetic depletion of CD3 cells was performed on Day 2. NK-MNC products were then returned to Boston on Day 2 for infusion on Day 3. Toxicity, cellular product characteristics, and logistic events were monitored. RESULTS: At a median of 90 days (range, 49-191 days) after ASCT, 13 patients were treated with escalating doses of NK-MNCs per kilogram from 10(5) to 2 × 10(7) . Adverse effects included Grade 2 rigors and muscle aches, but no Grade 3 or 4 events and no graft-versus-host disease or marrow suppression. One air courier delay occurred. NK-MNC products were viable with cytotoxic activity after transport. CONCLUSION: CD3-depleted, MHC-mismatched allogeneic NK-MNC infusions can be safely and feasibly administered to patients after ASCT after distant processing and transport, justifying further development of this approach.
- SourceAvailable from: Katayoun Rezvani[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Although natural killer (NK) cells can be readily generated for adoptive therapy with current techniques, their optimal application to treat malignant diseases requires an appreciation of the dynamic balance between signals that either synergize with or antagonize each other. Individuals display wide differences in NK function that determine their therapeutic efficacy. The ability of NK cells to kill target cells or produce cytokines depends on the balance between signals from activating and inhibitory cell-surface receptors. The selection of NK cells with a predominant activating profile is critical for delivering successful anti-tumor activity. This can be achieved through selection of killer immunoglobulin-like receptor-mismatched NK donors and by use of blocking molecules against inhibitory pathways. Optimum NK cytotoxicity may require licensing or priming with tumor cells. Recent discoveries in the molecular and cellular biology of NK cells inform in the design of new strategies, including adjuvant therapies, to maximize the cytotoxic potential of NK cells for adoptive transfer to treat human malignancies.Cytotherapy 05/2014; · 3.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Recognizing the challenges faced by researchers and clinicians working in the field of cellular therapy, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), National Institutes of Health, established the Production Assistance for Cellular Therapies (PACT) program in 2003 and expanded it in 2010. The PACT program provides both clinical product manufacturing support that furthers the mission of NHLBI in the areas of cardiac, lung, and blood diseases and broad support of translational development across all disease areas to serve the entire cell therapy community. The program also provides access to expertise in project management, regulatory affairs, and quality assurance and control. Education initiatives include webinars, cell processing facility-hosted workshops, national workshops, and active participation and leadership within the cell therapy community through collaboration with other cell therapy organizations and academia. So far, over 650 PACT-manufactured cell therapy products have been administered in 32 clinical trials for a range of illnesses and diseases such as acute myocardial infarction, sickle cell disease, and graft-versus-host disease.Clinical and Translational Science 03/2014; · 2.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Multiple natural killer (NK) cell-based anticancer therapies are currently under development. Here, we compare the efficiency of genetically modified NK-92 cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) at killing NK cell-resistant B-lymphoid leukemia cells to the antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) of NK-92 cells expressing a high affinity variant of the IgG Fc receptor (FcγRIII). First, we compared in vitro the abilities of NK-92 cells expressing CD20-targeting CARs to kill primary chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells derived from 9 patients with active, untreated disease to the cytotoxicity of NK-92 cells expressing FcγRIII combined with either of the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) rituximab or ofatumumab. We found that CAR-expressing NK-92 cells effectively kill NK cell-resistant primary CLL cells and that such a cytotoxic response is significantly stronger than that resulting from ADCC. For studying CAR-expressing NK cell-based immunotherapy in vivo, we established xenograft mouse models of residual leukemia using the human BCR-ABL1(+) cell lines SUP-B15 (CD19(+)CD20(-)) and TMD-5 (CD19(+)CD20(+)), two acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) lines that are resistant to parental NK-92 cells. Intravenous injection of NK-92 cells expressing CD19-targeting CARs eliminated SUP-B15 cells, whereas they had no such effect on TMD-5 cells. However, the intrafemoral injection of NK-92 cells expressing CD19-targeting CAR resulted in the depletion of TMD-5 cells from the bone marrow environment. Comparative studies in which NK-92 cells expressing either CD19- or CD20-targeting CARs were directly injected into subcutaneous CD19(+)CD20(+) Daudi lymphoma xenografts revealed that CD20-targeting CAR is superior to its CD19-specific counterpart in controlling local tumor growth. In summary, we show here that CAR-expressing NK-92 cells can be functionally superior to ADCC (as mediated by anti-CD20 mAbs) in the elimination of primary CLL cells. Moreover, we provide data demonstrating that the systemic administration of CAR-expressing NK-92 cells can control lymphoblastic leukemia in immunocompromised mice. Our results also suggest that the direct injection of CAR-expressing NK-92 cells to neoplastic lesions could be an effective treatment modality against lymphoma.Oncoimmunology. 10/2013; 2(10):e26527.