Effective dose and time window of ginseng total saponins treatment in rat after traumatic brain injury
ABSTRACT To investigate the neuroprotective effect, effective dose and time window of ginseng total saponins (GTS) treatment in rat after traumatic brain injury (TBI).
The modified Feeney's method was used to establish TBI model in rat. GTS was treated introperitoneally. The neurological function and histological morphology of brain tissue were observed.
Different doses of GTS were used 6 h after TBI. The neurological and histological results showed that: compared with the TBI group, significant efficacy was observed 2 - 14 days after injury with GTS treatment at 10, 20, 40, 60 and 80 mg/kg (P < 0.05); The effects of GTS at 20, 40, and 60 mg/kg were better than those of GTS at 10 and 80 mg/kg. During the research on the time window of GTS intervention, GTS (20 mg/kg) showed significant effect when used at 3 h and 6 h after TBI; however 12 h, 24 h after TBI, application of GTS did not exert any significant effect.
GTS intervention after TBI could reduce brain damage and promote recovery of the neurological function. Among doses of GTS 5 - 80 mg/kg, 20 - 60 mg/kg is the best dose limit. The effective time window of GTS is 6 h after TBI.
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ABSTRACT: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is frequently associated with abnormal blood-brain barrier function, resulting in the release of factors that can be used as molecular biomarkers of TBI, among them GFAP, UCH-L1, S100B, and NSE. Although many experimental studies have been conducted, clinical consolidation of these biomarkers is still needed to increase the predictive power and reduce the poor outcome of TBI. Interestingly, several of these TBI biomarkers are oxidatively modified to carbonyl groups, indicating that markers of oxidative stress could be of predictive value for the selection of therapeutic strategies. Some drugs such as corticosteroids and progesterone have already been investigated in TBI neuroprotection but failed to demonstrate clinical applicability in advanced phases of the studies. Dietary antioxidants, such as curcumin, resveratrol, and sulforaphane, have been shown to attenuate TBI-induced damage in preclinical studies. These dietary antioxidants can increase antioxidant defenses via transcriptional activation of NRF2 and are also known as carbonyl scavengers, two potential mechanisms for neuroprotection. This paper reviews the relevance of redox biology in TBI, highlighting perspectives for future studies.02/2014; 2014:723060. DOI:10.1155/2014/723060