The TMPRSS2:ERG Rearrangement, ERG Expression, and Prostate Cancer Outcomes: A Cohort Study and Meta-analysis.
ABSTRACT Whether the genomic rearrangement transmembrane protease, serine 2 (TMPRSS2):v-ets erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homolog (ERG) has prognostic value in prostate cancer is unclear.
Among men with prostate cancer in the prospective Physicians' Health and Health Professionals Follow-Up Studies, we identified rearrangement status by immunohistochemical assessment of ERG protein expression. We used Cox models to examine associations of ERG overexpression with biochemical recurrence and lethal disease (distant metastases or cancer-specific mortality). In a meta-analysis including 47 additional studies, we used random-effects models to estimate associations between rearrangement status and outcomes.
The cohort consisted of 1,180 men treated with radical prostatectomy between 1983 and 2005. During a median follow-up of 12.6 years, 266 men experienced recurrence and 85 men developed lethal disease. We found no significant association between ERG overexpression and biochemical recurrence [hazard ratio (HR), 0.99; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.78-1.26] or lethal disease (HR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.61-1.43). The meta-analysis of prostatectomy series included 5,074 men followed for biochemical recurrence (1,623 events), and 2,049 men followed for lethal disease (131 events). TMPRSS2:ERG was associated with stage at diagnosis [risk ratio (RR)(≥T3 vs. T2), 1.23; 95% CI, 1.16-1.30) but not with biochemical recurrence (RR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.86-1.17) or lethal disease (RR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.47-2.09).
These results suggest that TMPRSS2:ERG, or ERG overexpression, is associated with tumor stage but does not strongly predict recurrence or mortality among men treated with radical prostatectomy. Impact: This is the largest prospective cohort study to examine associations of ERG overexpression and lethal prostate cancer among men treated with radical prostatectomy. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 21(9); 1497-509. ©2012 AACR.
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUNDTMPRSS2/ERG fusion resulting in ERG overexpression occurs in 30 to 50% of prostate cancer (PCa) in Caucasian patients, but its prognostic relevance remains controversial. In the present study, we investigated ERG expression in all stages of PCa progression, and evaluated the prognostic impact of ERG status in clinically localized PCa (CLC) and in castration resistant disease (CRPC).METHODSERG and AR expressions were evaluated by immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays containing samples of high grade PIN (n = 57), CLC surgically treated (n = 299, including 185 Caucasians and 114 African-Caribbeans), metastases (n = 17), and CRPC (n = 41).RESULTSIn Caucasians, ERG expression significantly increased from high grade PIN (17.5%) to pT2 (27%) and pT3 CLC (43%), then to metastases (53%). In CLC, stainings for ERG and AR were correlated, and ERG expression was less frequent in African–Caribbeans compared to Caucasians (11.5% vs. 33%). In Caucasians CLC, ERG was associated with longer recurrence free survival, after adjusting for classical prognostic markers. In CRPC, ERG was expressed in 29% of cases, and was associated with a longer overall survival.CONCLUSIONS Our results confirm that ERG expression is less frequent in PCa from patients of African descent. Although ERG expression increases during PCa natural history, positive ERG status is associated with better outcome in both CLC and CRPC. This paradox could be explained in part by the fact that ERG expression is AR dependant, then ERG positive cancers are likely to progress in a rich androgen environment, with a better response to androgen suppression. Prostate © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.The Prostate 08/2014; · 3.57 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Erythroblastosis virus E26 related gene (ERG) overexpression is correlated with the TMPRSS2-ERG fusion gene, a rearrangement known to be present in about 50% of cases of prostate cancer. Androgen receptor (AR) is a known regulator of the TMPRSS2 gene. Despite knowledge of this relationship, limited data is available on the specific relationship of AR expression to TMPRSS2-ERG fusion (ERG) status in prostate cancer (PCa). We used multiplexed immunohistochemistry, multispectral imaging technology and tissue microarray (TMA) to elucidate this relationship. Two prostate tissue microarrays were created from two cohorts of hormonal naïve patients’ prostatectomy specimens: progression TMA (pTMA, from 95 PCa patients) and outcome TMA (oTMA, from 183 PCa patients with at least 5-year follow-up information). Each of the two TMAs were triple-stained with ERG, AR and E-cadherin antibodies and visualized with a different chromogen. We found marked difference in AR expression levels between ERG positive (ERG+) and ERG negative (ERG-) prostate cancer. The difference was significant in localized (pT2) prostate cancer. We also found that AR expression levels were significantly higher in PCa tissue compared to benign prostate tissue, with the highest expression levels in ERG+ metastatic cancer. Neither AR nor ERG expression was associated with clinical outcome. Our findings confirm that TMPRSS2-ERG fusion is AR-dependent and is associated with increased AR expression. Our data suggest that the AR pathway may play an important role in the development of ERG+ PCa and ERG status may be useful in stratifying PCa patients for hormonal therapy.American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Urology. 10/2014; 2(3):249-257.
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ABSTRACT: It has been suggested that urinary PCA3 and TMPRSS2:ERG fusion tests and serum PHI correlate to cancer aggressiveness-related pathological criteria at prostatectomy. To evaluate and compare their ability in predicting prostate cancer aggressiveness, PHI and urinary PCA3 and TMPRSS2:ERG (T2) scores were assessed in 154 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy for biopsy-proven prostate cancer. Univariate and multivariate analyses using logistic regression and decision curve analyses were performed. All three markers were predictors of a tumor volume ≥0.5 mL. Only PHI predicted Gleason score ≥7. T2 score and PHI were both independent predictors of extracapsular extension (≥pT3), while multifocality was only predicted by PCA3 score. Moreover, when compared to a base model (age, digital rectal examination, serum PSA, and Gleason sum at biopsy), the addition of both PCA3 score and PHI to the base model induced a significant increase (+12%) when predicting tumor volume >0.5 mL. PHI and urinary PCA3 and T2 scores can be considered as complementary predictors of cancer aggressiveness at prostatectomy.International Journal of Molecular Sciences 08/2014; 15(8):13299-13316. · 2.46 Impact Factor