Physical development of girls from Krakow in the aspect of socioeconomical changes in Poland (1938-2010).
ABSTRACT This survey aimed at analyzing secular changes in the development of girls from Krakow, in the first decade of the 21st century, against the background of transformations observed in the previous century.
The data collected during a survey conducted in Krakow in 2010, in which the measurements of a total of 1,974 girls aged 3.5-18.5 years were taken, made a basis for this study. The results from the contemporary series were compared with previous surveys conducted in 1938, 1971, 1983, and 2000. The analysis of the survey made use of the results of body height and weight measurements, BMI, and the menarche, thelarche, and pubarche onsets determining the level of pubertal development. The development of secondary sex characters was assessed utilizing the criteria 5-stage scale established by Tanner. The mean age of the menarche onset and ages at beginning breast (B2) and pubic hair (PH2) development were calculated by means of the probit method.
In the physical development of girls a positive trend in body height changes in prepubescence and adolescence was still observed. The acceleration of body weight development in peripubescence is expressed by increased BMI. It is spectacular that body build gets slimmer at the age of 17 and 18, which is probably connected with conscious control of body weight, and pubertal acceleration is also maintained.
Still observed trends in morphological factors and pubertal acceleration require further monitoring out of concern for the health and proper development of children and adolescents.
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ABSTRACT: The age at menarche (AAM) is commonly in use in patients with IS as one of the maturity indicator suggesting deceleration of the growth velocity. The AAM was suggested to be related to predisposition and curve progression potential of IS. The late age at menarche was reported to be associated with higher prevalence of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. The age at menarche is determined by both genetic and environmental factors as well as their interactions. Estrogen receptors 1 and 2 polymorphism were reported to be associated with AAM: in ESR1 XbaI and PvuII site polymorphism and in ESR2 AluI site polymorphism.The purpose of the study was to investigate associations of the ESR1 and ESR2 polymorphisms with AAM in IS patients and to evaluate association of AAM with IS severity. 208 females with IS Caucasian females from Central Europe underwent clinical, radiological and genetic examinations. Four SNPs were selected XbaI (A/Grs9340799) and PvuII (C/T rs2234693) in ESR1and AluI (A/G rs4986938) and RasI (A/G rs1256049) in ESR2. Samples were analyzed with polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragments length polymorphism analysis (PCR-RFLP). The age of a menarche was established during personal interview with the patients and in case of children with their parents. The Cobb angle was measured. All genotypes followed HWE. Mean AAM for patients was 154.8 ± 14.7 months (12.9 ± 1.2 years). The earliest AAM was 121 and latest 192 months. There was no statistically significant difference between AAM mean values in each genotype, for the XbaI, PvuII, AluI and RsaI site polymorphisms the p values were p = 0.7141, p = 0.9774, p = 0.7973 and p = 0.2282, respectively. Patients divided according to Cobb into mild (<30°), moderate (30°-49°) or severe (≥50°) IS revealed tendency to delay AAM: 151.9 ± 14.7; 155.2 ± 14.8 and 157.9 ± 14.0 months, respectively. There was statistical significant difference between patients with mild <30° and severe ≥50° IS, p = 0.0267. In IS patients estrogen receptors polymorphisms did not show association with the AAM. Patients with severe IS form revealed delayed AAM than patients with mild IS form.BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 01/2014; 15(1):383. · 1.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Background: Body mass disorders are an increasing problem, especially in industrialized countries. Aim: Determination of time- and age-related differences in the prevalence of overweight, obesity and in body composition in girls from 1983, 2000 and 2010. Subject and methods: In 2010 an anthropological study was conducted on 1970 girls aged 3-18 years living in Kraków (Poland). Data on selected skin-folds, BMI, muscle mass and bone mass were compared to two studies on analogous populations carried out in 1983 and 2000. Results: Compared to 1983, the share of overweight girls in 2010 had decreased (from 12.4% to 11.2%), while the obesity rate had increased slightly from 2.3% to 3.2%. Girls from 2010 had lower overall body fat content than their peers studied in 1983. However, in 2010 suprailiac adiposity prevalence was higher, while triceps, subscapular and abdominal adiposity rates were lower. They also had higher muscle mass and lower bone mass. Conclusion: The prevalence of overweight and obesity has not changed significantly over the last 30 years. However, significant changes have occurred in body composition. Girls measured in 2010 had lower total adipose tissue, although they also showed a tendency towards increased central adiposity.Annals of Human Biology 02/2014; · 1.48 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: After nearly thirty years of concerted effort by many investigators, the cause or causes of the secular gains in IQ test scores, known as the Flynn effect, remain elusive. In this target article, I offer six suggestions as to how we might proceed in our efforts to solve this intractable mystery. The suggestions are as follows: (1) compare parents to children; (2) consider other traits and conditions; (3) compare siblings; (4) conduct more and better intervention programs; (5) use subtest profile data in context; and (6) quantify the potential contribution of heterosis. This last section contains new simulations of the process of heterosis, which provide a plausible scenario whereby rapid secular changes in multiple genetically influenced traits are possible. If there is any theme to the present paper, it is that future study designs should be simpler and more highly focused, coordinating multiple studies on single populations.Journal of Intelligence. 01/2014; 2:122-155.