The Risk of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Among Individuals With Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome in the United States

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, Maryland. .
Cancer (Impact Factor: 4.89). 12/2012; 118(24). DOI: 10.1002/cncr.27694
Source: PubMed


Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a concern among individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

The authors analyzed population-based registry linkage data from the US HIV/AIDS Cancer Match Study (1980-2009) to examine the risk and trends of HCC among individuals with AIDS. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were used to measure HCC risk relative to the general population, and Poisson regression was used to calculate incidence rate ratios (RR) comparing incidence among individuals with AIDS. People with AIDS were categorized according to their HIV risk group into high and low hepatitis C virus (HCV) prevalence groups based on their HIV transmission risk category.

Among 615,150 individuals with AIDS, HCC risk was elevated almost 4 times compared with the risk in the general population (N = 366; SIR, 3.8; 95% confidence interval, 3.5-4.3). Although HCC incidence increased steadily across calendar periods (P(trend) < .0001; adjusted for sex and age), the excess risk in individuals with AIDS compared with the general population remained somewhat constant (SIRs range, 3.5-3.9) between the monotherapy/dual therapy era (1990-1995) and the recent highly active antiretroviral therapy era (2001-2009). In a multivariate model adjusting for sex, race/ethnicity, and attained calendar period, HCC incidence increased with advancing age (P(trend) < .0001) and was associated with HIV risk groups with a known higher prevalence of HCV (adjusted RR, 2.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.8-2.8).

HCC incidence in individuals with AIDS has increased over time despite improved HIV treatment regimens, likely reflecting prolonged survival with chronic liver disease. The high incidence in older adults suggests that this cancer will increase in importance with aging of the HIV-infected population.

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    • "HAART impact on cancer incidence among HIV patients 7 survival of people living with HIV/AIDS after the introduction of HAART; in addition, it is suspected that the hepatotoxicity of HAART may worsen the carcinogenic effect of hepatitis B and C [18]. "
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    ABSTRACT: After highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) became widespread, several studies demonstrated changes in the incidence of defining and non-defining AIDS cancers among HIV/AIDS patients. We conducted a systematic review of observational studies evaluating the incidence of malignancies before and after the introduction of HAART in people with HIV/AIDS. Eligible studies were searched up to December 2012 in the following databases: Pubmed, Embase, Scielo, Cancerlit and Google Scholar. In this study, we determined the cancer risk ratio by comparing the pre- and post-HAART eras. Twenty-one relevant articles were found, involving more than 600,000 people with HIV/AIDS and 10,891 new cases of cancers. The risk for the development of an AIDS-defining cancer decreased after the introduction of HAART: Kaposi's sarcoma (RR = 0.30, 95% CI: 0.28–0.33) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (RR = 0.52, 95% CI: 0.48–0.56), in contrast to invasive cervical cancer (RR = 1.46, 95% CI: 1.09–1.94). Among the non-AIDS-defining cancers, the overall risk increased after the introduction of HAART (RR = 2.00, 95% CI: 1.79–2.23). The incidence of AIDS-defining cancers decreased and the incidence of non-AIDS-defining cancers increased after the early use of HAART, probably due to better control of viral replication, increased immunity and increased survival provided by new drugs.
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Although the number of human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with chronic liver disease is increasing, the impact of human immunodeficiency virus on hepatocellular carcinoma outcome remains unclear. AIMS: This single centre study investigated whether human immunodeficiency virus infection per se affects the hepatocellular carcinoma prognosis. METHODS: Forty-eight human immunodeficiency virus-infected and 234 uninfected patients consecutively diagnosed with hepatitis virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma from January 2000 to December 2009 were retrospectively enrolled. Hepatocellular carcinoma was staged according to Cancer of the Liver Italian Program criteria. Survival and independent prognostic predictors were evaluated. Survivals were also compared after adjustment and matching by propensity score. RESULTS: Compared to human immunodeficiency virus-uninfected subjects, infected patients were more likely to be males, were younger, had fewer comorbidities and the tumour was more often detected during surveillance. Liver function, tumour characteristics and treatments did not significantly differ between the two groups. Nevertheless, median survival of human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients was approximately half that of their counterpart (16 months [95% confidence interval: 7-25] vs. 30 months [95% confidence interval: 25-35]; p=0.0354). Human immunodeficiency virus infection, Cancer of the Liver Italian Program score and hepatocellular carcinoma treatment were independently associated with mortality. Notably, human immunodeficiency virus infection doubled the risk of dying. These results were confirmed by propensity analysis. CONCLUSION: Human immunodeficiency virus infection per se worsens the prognosis of patients with virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma.
    Digestive and Liver Disease 01/2013; 45(6). DOI:10.1016/j.dld.2012.12.010 · 2.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Management of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has been continuously evolving during recent years. HCC is a worldwide clinical and social issue and typically a complicates cirrhosis. The incidence of HCC is increasing, not only in the general population of patients with cirrhosis, but particularly in some subgroups of patients, like those with human immunodeficiency virus infection or thalassemia. Since a 3% annual HCC incidence has been estimated in cirrhosis, a bi-annual screening is generally suggested. The diagnostic criteria of HCC has recently had a dramatic evolution during recent years. HCC diagnosis is now made only on radiological criteria in the majority of the cases. In the context of cirrhosis, the universally accepted criteria for HCC diagnosis is contrast enhancement in arterial phase and washout in venous/late phase at imaging, the so called "typical pattern". However, recently updated guidelines slightly differ in diagnostic criteria. Apart from liver transplantation, the only cure of both HCC and underlying liver cirrhosis, all the other treatments have to match with higher rate of HCC recurrence. The latter can be classified into curative (resection and percutaneous ablation) and palliative treatments. The aim of this paper was to review the current knowledge on management of HCC and to enlighten the areas of uncertainty.
    World Journal of Hepatology 06/2013; 5(6):302-310. DOI:10.4254/wjh.v5.i6.302
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Vikrant V Sahasrabuddhe